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RANDOM(3)			   BSD Library Functions Manual 			RANDOM(3)

NAME
     random, srandom, initstate, setstate -- better random number generator; routines for chang-
     ing generators

LIBRARY
     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <stdlib.h>

     long
     random(void);

     void
     srandom(unsigned long seed);

     char *
     initstate(unsigned long seed, char *state, size_t n);

     char *
     setstate(char *state);

DESCRIPTION
     The random() function uses a non-linear additive feedback random number generator employing
     a default table of size 31 long integers to return successive pseudo-random numbers in the
     range from 0 to (2**31)-1.  The period of this random number generator is very large,
     approximately 16*((2**31)-1).  The maximum value RANDOM_MAX is defined in <stdlib.h>.

     The random() and srandom() have (almost) the same calling sequence and initialization prop-
     erties as rand(3) and srand(3).  The difference is that rand(3) produces a much less random
     sequence -- in fact, the low dozen bits generated by rand(3) go through a cyclic pattern.
     All the bits generated by random() are usable.  For example, 'random()&01' will produce a
     random binary value.

     Like rand(3), random() will by default produce a sequence of numbers that can be duplicated
     by calling srandom() with '1' as the seed.

     The initstate() routine allows a state array, passed in as an argument, to be initialized
     for future use.  The size of the state array (in bytes) is used by initstate() to decide how
     sophisticated a random number generator it should use -- the more state, the better the ran-
     dom numbers will be.  (Current "optimal" values for the amount of state information are 8,
     32, 64, 128, and 256 bytes; other amounts will be rounded down to the nearest known amount.
     Using less than 8 bytes will cause an error).  The seed for the initialization (which speci-
     fies a starting point for the random number sequence, and provides for restarting at the
     same point) is also an argument.  The state array passed to initstate() must be aligned to a
     32-bit boundary.  This can be achieved by using a suitably-sized array of ints, and casting
     the array to char * when passing it to initstate().  The initstate() function returns a
     pointer to the previous state information array.

     Once a state has been initialized, the setstate() routine provides for rapid switching
     between states.  The setstate() function returns a pointer to the previous state array; its
     argument state array is used for further random number generation until the next call to
     initstate() or setstate().

     Once a state array has been initialized, it may be restarted at a different point either by
     calling initstate() (with the desired seed, the state array, and its size) or by calling
     both setstate() (with the state array) and srandom() (with the desired seed).  The advantage
     of calling both setstate() and srandom() is that the size of the state array does not have
     to be remembered after it is initialized.

     With 256 bytes of state information, the period of the random number generator is greater
     than 2**69 which should be sufficient for most purposes.

DIAGNOSTICS
     If initstate() is called with less than 8 bytes of state information, or if setstate()
     detects that the state information has been garbled, error messages are printed on the stan-
     dard error output.

SEE ALSO
     rand(3), srand(3), rnd(4), rnd(9)

STANDARDS
     The random(), srandom(), initstate() and setstate() functions conform to IEEE Std
     1003.1-2008 (``POSIX.1'').

HISTORY
     These functions appeared in 4.2BSD.

AUTHORS
     Earl T. Cohen

BUGS
     About 2/3 the speed of rand(3).

BSD					 October 15, 2011				      BSD
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