# random(3) [netbsd man page]

RANDOM(3) BSD Library Functions Manual RANDOM(3)NAME

random, srandom, initstate, setstatebetter random number generator; routines for changing generators--LIBRARY

Standard C Library (libc, -lc)SYNOPSIS

#include <stdlib.h> long random(void); void srandom(unsigned long seed); char * initstate(unsigned long seed, char *state, size_t n); char * setstate(char *state);DESCRIPTION

The random() function uses a non-linear additive feedback random number generator employing a default table of size 31 long integers to return successive pseudo-random numbers in the range from 0 to (2**31)-1. The period of this random number generator is very large, approxi- mately 16*((2**31)-1). The maximum value RANDOM_MAX is defined in <stdlib.h>. The random() and srandom() have (almost) the same calling sequence and initialization properties as rand(3) and srand(3). The difference is that rand(3) produces a much less random sequencein fact, the low dozen bits generated by rand(3) go through a cyclic pattern. All the bits generated by random() are usable. For example, 'random()&01' will produce a random binary value. Like rand(3), random() will by default produce a sequence of numbers that can be duplicated by calling srandom() with '1' as the seed. The initstate() routine allows a state array, passed in as an argument, to be initialized for future use. The size of the state array (in bytes) is used by initstate() to decide how sophisticated a random number generator it should use--the more state, the better the random numbers will be. (Current "optimal" values for the amount of state information are 8, 32, 64, 128, and 256 bytes; other amounts will be rounded down to the nearest known amount. Using less than 8 bytes will cause an error). The seed for the initialization (which specifies a starting point for the random number sequence, and provides for restarting at the same point) is also an argument. The state array passed to initstate() must be aligned to a 32-bit boundary. This can be achieved by using a suitably-sized array of ints, and casting the array to char * when passing it to initstate(). The initstate() function returns a pointer to the previous state information array. Once a state has been initialized, the setstate() routine provides for rapid switching between states. The setstate() function returns a pointer to the previous state array; its argument state array is used for further random number generation until the next call to initstate() or setstate(). Once a state array has been initialized, it may be restarted at a different point either by calling initstate() (with the desired seed, the state array, and its size) or by calling both setstate() (with the state array) and srandom() (with the desired seed). The advantage of calling both setstate() and srandom() is that the size of the state array does not have to be remembered after it is initialized. With 256 bytes of state information, the period of the random number generator is greater than 2**69 which should be sufficient for most pur- poses.--DIAGNOSTICS

If initstate() is called with less than 8 bytes of state information, or if setstate() detects that the state information has been garbled, error messages are printed on the standard error output.SEE ALSO

rand(3), srand(3), rnd(4), rnd(9)STANDARDS

The random(), srandom(), initstate() and setstate() functions conform to IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (``POSIX.1'').HISTORY

These functions appeared in 4.2BSD.AUTHORS

Earl T. CohenBUGS

About 2/3 the speed of rand(3).BSD

October 15, 2011 BSD

## Check Out this Related Man Page

RANDOM(3) Linux Programmer's Manual RANDOM(3)NAME

random, srandom, initstate, setstate - random number generator.SYNOPSIS

#include <stdlib.h> long int random(void); void srandom(unsigned int seed); char *initstate(unsigned int seed, char *state, size_t n); char *setstate(char *state);DESCRIPTION

The random() function uses a non-linear additive feedback random number generator employing a default table of size 31 long integers to return successive pseudo-random numbers in the range from 0 to RAND_MAX. The period of this random number generator is very large, approx- imately 16*((2**31)-1). The srandom() function sets its argument as the seed for a new sequence of pseudo-random integers to be returned by random(). These sequences are repeatable by calling srandom() with the same seed value. If no seed value is provided, the random() function is automati- cally seeded with a value of 1. The initstate() function allows a state array state to be initialized for use by random(). The size of the state array n is used by init- state() to decide how sophisticated a random number generator it should usethe larger the state array, the better the random numbers will be. seed is the seed for the initialization, which specifies a starting point for the random number sequence, and provides for restarting at the same point. The setstate() function changes the state array used by the random() function. The state array state is used for random number generation until the next call to initstate() or setstate(). state must first have been initialized using initstate() or be the result of a previous call of setstate().--RETURN VALUE

The random() function returns a value between 0 and RAND_MAX. The srandom() function returns no value. The initstate() and setstate() functions return a pointer to the previous state array, or NULL on error.ERRORS

EINVAL A state array of less than 8 bytes was specified to initstate().NOTES

Current "optimal" values for the size of the state array n are 8, 32, 64, 128, and 256 bytes; other amounts will be rounded down to the nearest known amount. Using less than 8 bytes will cause an error.CONFORMING TO

BSD 4.3SEE ALSO

rand(3), srand(3)GNU

2000-08-20 RANDOM(3)