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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for localeconv (netbsd section 3)

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SETLOCALE(3)			   BSD Library Functions Manual 		     SETLOCALE(3)

NAME
     setlocale, localeconv -- natural language formatting for C

LIBRARY
     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <locale.h>

     char *
     setlocale(int category, const char *locale);

     struct lconv *
     localeconv(void);

DESCRIPTION
     The setlocale() function sets the C library's notion of natural language formatting style
     for particular sets of routines.  Each such style is called a 'locale' and is invoked using
     an appropriate name passed as a C string.	The localeconv() routine returns the current
     locale's parameters for formatting numbers.

     The setlocale() function recognizes several categories of routines.  These are the cate-
     gories and the sets of routines they select:

     LC_ALL	  Set the entire locale generically.

     LC_COLLATE   Set a locale for string collation routines.  This controls alphabetic ordering
		  in strcoll() and strxfrm().

     LC_CTYPE	  Set a locale for the ctype(3) functions.  This controls recognition of upper
		  and lower case, alphabetic or non-alphabetic characters, and so on.  The real
		  work is done by the setrunelocale() function.

     LC_MESSAGES  Set a locale for message catalogs.  This controls the selection of message cat-
		  alogs by the catgets(3) and gettext(3) families of functions.

     LC_MONETARY  Set a locale for formatting monetary values; this affects the localeconv()
		  function.

     LC_NUMERIC   Set a locale for formatting numbers.	This controls the formatting of decimal
		  points in input and output of floating point numbers in functions such as
		  printf() and scanf(), as well as values returned by localeconv().

     LC_TIME	  Set a locale for formatting dates and times using the strftime() function.

     Only three locales are defined by default, the empty string "" which denotes the native
     environment, and the "C" and "POSIX" locales, which denote the C language environment.  A
     locale argument of NULL causes setlocale() to return the current locale.  By default, C pro-
     grams start in the "C" locale.  The format of the locale string is described in nls(7).

     The only function in the library that sets the locale is setlocale(); the locale is never
     changed as a side effect of some other routine.

     Changing the setting of LC_MESSAGES has no effect on catalogs that have already been opened
     by catopen(3).

     The localeconv() function returns a pointer to a structure which provides parameters for
     formatting numbers, especially currency values:

	   struct lconv {
		   char    *decimal_point;
		   char    *thousands_sep;
		   char    *grouping;
		   char    *int_curr_symbol;
		   char    *currency_symbol;
		   char    *mon_decimal_point;
		   char    *mon_thousands_sep;
		   char    *mon_grouping;
		   char    *positive_sign;
		   char    *negative_sign;
		   char    int_frac_digits;
		   char    frac_digits;
		   char    p_cs_precedes;
		   char    p_sep_by_space;
		   char    n_cs_precedes;
		   char    n_sep_by_space;
		   char    p_sign_posn;
		   char    n_sign_posn;
		   char    int_p_cs_precedes;
		   char    int_n_cs_precedes;
		   char    int_p_sep_by_space;
		   char    int_n_sep_by_space;
		   char    int_p_sign_posn;
		   char    int_n_sign_posn;
	   };

     The individual fields have the following meanings:

     decimal_point	 The decimal point character, except for monetary values.

     thousands_sep	 The separator between groups of digits before the decimal point, except
			 for monetary values.

     grouping		 The sizes of the groups of digits, except for monetary values.  This is
			 a pointer to a vector of integers, each of size char, representing group
			 size from low order digit groups to high order (right to left).  The
			 list may be terminated with 0 or CHAR_MAX.  If the list is terminated
			 with 0, the last group size before the 0 is repeated to account for all
			 the digits.  If the list is terminated with CHAR_MAX, no more grouping
			 is performed.

     int_curr_symbol	 The standardized (ISO 4217:1995) international currency symbol.

     currency_symbol	 The local currency symbol.

     mon_decimal_point	 The decimal point character for monetary values.

     mon_thousands_sep	 The separator for digit groups in monetary values.

     mon_grouping	 Like grouping but for monetary values.

     positive_sign	 The character used to denote nonnegative monetary values, usually the
			 empty string.

     negative_sign	 The character used to denote negative monetary values, usually a minus
			 sign.

     int_frac_digits	 The number of digits after the decimal point in an internationally for-
			 matted monetary value.

     frac_digits	 The number of digits after the decimal point in an locally formatted
			 monetary value.

     p_cs_precedes	 1 if the currency symbol precedes the monetary value for nonnegative
			 values, 0 if it follows.

     p_sep_by_space	 1 if a space is inserted between the currency symbol and the monetary
			 value for nonnegative values, 0 otherwise.

     n_cs_precedes	 Like p_cs_precedes but for negative values.

     n_sep_by_space	 Like p_sep_by_space but for negative values.

     p_sign_posn	 The location of the positive_sign with respect to a nonnegative quantity
			 and the currency_symbol.

     n_sign_posn	 Like p_sign_posn but for negative currency values.

     int_p_cs_precedes	 1 if the currency symbol precedes the internationally formatted monetary
			 value for nonnegative values, 0 if it follows.

     int_n_cs_precedes	 Like int_p_cs_precedes but for negative values.

     int_p_sep_by_space  1 if a space is inserted between the currency symbol and the interna-
			 tionally formatted monetary value for nonnegative values, 0 otherwise.

     int_n_sep_by_space  Like int_p_sep_by_space but for negative values.

     int_p_sign_posn	 The location of the positive_sign with respect to a nonnegative quantity
			 and the currency_symbol, for internationally formatted nonnegative mone-
			 tary values.

     int_n_sign_posn	 Like int_p_sign_posn but for negative values.

     The positional parameters in p_sign_posn, n_sign_posn, int_p_sign_posn and int_n_sign_posn
     are encoded as follows:
     0	  Parentheses around the entire string.
     1	  Before the string.
     2	  After the string.
     3	  Just before currency_symbol.
     4	  Just after currency_symbol.

     Unless mentioned above, an empty string as a value for a field indicates a zero length
     result or a value that is not in the current locale.  A CHAR_MAX result similarly denotes an
     unavailable value.

RETURN VALUES
     The setlocale() function returns NULL and fails to change the locale if the given combina-
     tion of category and locale makes no sense.  The localeconv() function returns a pointer to
     a static object which may be altered by later calls to setlocale() or localeconv().

EXAMPLES
     The following code illustrates how a program can initialize the international environment
     for one language, while selectively modifying the program's locale such that regular expres-
     sions and string operations can be applied to text recorded in a different language:

	     setlocale(LC_ALL, "de");
	     setlocale(LC_COLLATE, "fr");

     When a process is started, its current locale is set to the C or POSIX locale.  An interna-
     tionalized program that depends on locale data not defined in the C or POSIX locale must
     invoke the setlocale subroutine in the following manner before using any of the locale-spe-
     cific information:

	     setlocale(LC_ALL, "");

SEE ALSO
     catopen(3), gettext(3), nl_langinfo(3), nls(7)

STANDARDS
     The setlocale() and localeconv() functions conform to ANSI X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C89'') and
     ISO/IEC 9899:1990 (``ISO C90'').

     The int_p_cs_precedes, int_n_cs_precedes, int_p_sep_by_space, int_n_sep_by_space,
     int_p_sign_posn and int_n_sign_posn members of struct lconv were introduced in ISO/IEC
     9899:1999 (``ISO C99'').

HISTORY
     The setlocale() and localeconv() functions first appeared in 4.4BSD.

BUGS
     The current implementation supports only the "C" and "POSIX" locales for all but the
     LC_CTYPE locale.

     In spite of the gnarly currency support in localeconv(), the standards don't include any
     functions for generalized currency formatting.

     LC_COLLATE does not make sense for many languages.  Use of LC_MONETARY could lead to mis-
     leading results until we have a real time currency conversion function.  LC_NUMERIC and
     LC_TIME are personal choices and should not be wrapped up with the other categories.

     Multibyte locales aren't supported for static binaries.

BSD					   May 30, 2003 				      BSD
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