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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for getopt_long (netbsd section 3)

GETOPT_LONG(3)			   BSD Library Functions Manual 		   GETOPT_LONG(3)

     getopt_long -- get long options from command line argument list

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

     #include <getopt.h>

     getopt_long(int argc, char * const *argv, const char *optstring,
	 struct option *long_options, int *index);

     The getopt_long() function is similar to getopt(3) but it accepts options in two forms:
     words and characters.  The getopt_long() function provides a superset of the functionality
     of getopt(3).  getopt_long() can be used in two ways.  In the first way, every long option
     understood by the program has a corresponding short option, and the option structure is only
     used to translate from long options to short options.  When used in this fashion,
     getopt_long() behaves identically to getopt(3).  This is a good way to add long option pro-
     cessing to an existing program with the minimum of rewriting.

     In the second mechanism, a long option sets a flag in the option structure passed, or will
     store a pointer to the command line argument in the option structure passed to it for
     options that take arguments.  Additionally, the long option's argument may be specified as a
     single argument with an equal sign, e.g.

     myprogram --myoption=somevalue

     When a long option is processed the call to getopt_long() will return 0.  For this reason,
     long option processing without shortcuts is not backwards compatible with getopt(3).

     It is possible to combine these methods, providing for long options processing with short
     option equivalents for some options.  Less frequently used options would be processed as
     long options only.

     Abbreviated long option names are accepted when getopt_long() processes long options if the
     abbreviation is unique.  An exact match is always preferred for a defined long option.

     The getopt_long() call requires a structure to be initialized describing the long options.
     The structure is:

     struct option {
	     char *name;
	     int has_arg;
	     int *flag;
	     int val;

     The name field should contain the option name without the leading double dash.

     The has_arg field should be one of:

     no_argument	no argument to the option is expect.

     required_argument	an argument to the option is required.

     optional_argument	an argument to the option may be presented.

     If flag is not NULL, then the integer pointed to by it will be set to the value in the val
     field.  If the flag field is NULL, then the val field will be returned.  Setting flag to
     NULL and setting val to the corresponding short option will make this function act just like

     If the index field is not NULL, the integer it points to will be set to the index of the
     long option in the long_options array.

     The last element of the long_options array has to be filled with zeroes (see EXAMPLES sec-

     extern char *optarg;
     extern int optind;
     int bflag, ch, fd;
     int daggerset;

     /* options descriptor */
     static struct option longopts[] = {
	     { "buffy",      no_argument,	     0, 	     'b' },
	     { "fluoride",   required_argument,      0, 	     'f' },
	     { "daggerset",  no_argument,	     &daggerset,     1 },
	     { NULL,	     0, 		     NULL,	     0 }

     bflag = 0;
     while ((ch = getopt_long(argc, argv, "bf:", longopts, NULL)) != -1)
	     switch (ch) {
	     case 'b':
		     bflag = 1;
	     case 'f':
		     if ((fd = open(optarg, O_RDONLY, 0)) < 0) {
				 "myname: %s: %s\n", optarg, strerror(errno));
	     case 0:
		     if(daggerset) {
			     fprintf(stderr,"Buffy will use her dagger to "
					    "apply fluoride to dracula's teeth\n");
	     case '?':
     argc -= optind;
     argv += optind;

     This section describes differences to the GNU implementation found in glibc-2.1.3:

     o	  handling of - as first char of option string in presence of environment variable

	  GNU	  ignores POSIXLY_CORRECT and returns non-options as arguments to option '\1'.

	  NetBSD  honors POSIXLY_CORRECT and stops at the first non-option.

     o	  handling of :: in options string in presence of POSIXLY_CORRECT:

	  Both	  GNU and NetBSD ignore POSIXLY_CORRECT here and take :: to mean the preceding
		  option takes an optional argument.

     o	  return value in case of missing argument if first character (after + or -) in option
	  string is not ':':

	  GNU	  returns '?'

	  NetBSD  returns ':' (since NetBSD's getopt does).

     o	  handling of --a in getopt:

	  GNU	  parses this as option '-', option 'a'.

	  NetBSD  parses this as '--', and returns -1 (ignoring the a).  (Because the original
		  getopt does.)

     o	  setting of optopt for long options with flag != NULL:

	  GNU	  sets optopt to val.

	  NetBSD  sets optopt to 0 (since val would never be returned).

     o	  handling of -W with W; in option string in getopt (not getopt_long):

	  GNU	  causes a segfault.

	  NetBSD  returns -1, with optind pointing past the argument of -W (as if `-W arg' were
		  `--arg', and thus '--' had been found).

     o	  setting of optarg for long options without an argument that are invoked via -W (W; in
	  option string):

	  GNU	  sets optarg to the option name (the argument of -W).

	  NetBSD  sets optarg to NULL (the argument of the long option).

     o	  handling of -W with an argument that is not (a prefix to) a known long option (W; in
	  option string):

	  GNU	  returns -W with optarg set to the unknown option.

	  NetBSD  treats this as an error (unknown option) and returns '?' with optopt set to 0
		  and optarg set to NULL (as GNU's man page documents).

     o	  The error messages are different.

     o	  NetBSD does not permute the argument vector at the same points in the calling sequence
	  as GNU does.	The aspects normally used by the caller (ordering after -1 is returned,
	  value of optind relative to current positions) are the same, though.	(We do fewer
	  variable swaps.)


     The getopt_long() function first appeared in GNU libiberty.  The first NetBSD implementation
     appeared in 1.5.

     The implementation can completely replace getopt(3), but right now we are using separate

     The argv argument is not really const.

BSD					   July 2, 2007 				      BSD

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