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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for access (netbsd section 2)

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ACCESS(2)			     BSD System Calls Manual				ACCESS(2)

NAME
     access -- check access permissions of a file or pathname

LIBRARY
     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <unistd.h>

     int
     access(const char *path, int mode);

DESCRIPTION
     The access() function checks the accessibility of the file named by path for the access per-
     missions indicated by mode.  The value of mode is the bitwise inclusive OR of the access
     permissions to be checked (R_OK for read permission, W_OK for write permission and X_OK for
     execute/search permission) or the existence test, F_OK.  All components of the pathname path
     are checked for access permissions (including F_OK).

     The real user ID is used in place of the effective user ID and the real group access list
     (including the real group ID) are used in place of the effective ID for verifying permis-
     sion.

     If a process has super-user privileges and indicates success for R_OK or W_OK, the file may
     not actually have read or write permission bits set.  If a process has super-user privileges
     and indicates success for X_OK, at least one of the user, group, or other execute bits is
     set.  (However, the file may still not be executable.  See execve(2).)

RETURN VALUES
     If path cannot be found or if any of the desired access modes would not be granted, then a
     -1 value is returned; otherwise a 0 value is returned.

ERRORS
     Access to the file is denied if:

     [EACCES]		Permission bits of the file mode do not permit the requested access, or
			search permission is denied on a component of the path prefix.	The owner
			of a file has permission checked with respect to the ``owner'' read,
			write, and execute mode bits, members of the file's group other than the
			owner have permission checked with respect to the ``group'' mode bits,
			and all others have permissions checked with respect to the ``other''
			mode bits.

     [EFAULT]		path points outside the process's allocated address space.

     [EIO]		An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file system.

     [ELOOP]		Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating the pathname.

     [ENAMETOOLONG]	A component of a pathname exceeded {NAME_MAX} characters, or an entire
			path name exceeded {PATH_MAX} characters.

     [ENOENT]		The named file does not exist.

     [ENOTDIR]		A component of the path prefix is not a directory.

     [EROFS]		Write access is requested for a file on a read-only file system.

     [ETXTBSY]		Write access is requested for a pure procedure (shared text) file
			presently being executed.

SEE ALSO
     chmod(2), execve(2), stat(2), secure_path(3)

STANDARDS
     The access() function conforms to ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 (``POSIX.1'').

SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
     The access() system call is a potential security hole due to race conditions.  It should
     never be used.  Set-user-ID and set-group-ID applications should restore the effective user
     or group ID, and perform actions directly rather than use access() to simulate access checks
     for the real user or group ID.

     The access() system call may however have some value in providing clues to users as to
     whether certain operations make sense for a particular filesystem object.	Arguably it also
     allows a cheaper file existence test than stat(2).

BSD					   May 3, 2010					      BSD
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