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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for objcopy (netbsd section 1)

OBJCOPY(1)			      GNU Development Tools			       OBJCOPY(1)

NAME
       objcopy - copy and translate object files

SYNOPSIS
       objcopy [-F bfdname|--target=bfdname]
	       [-I bfdname|--input-target=bfdname]
	       [-O bfdname|--output-target=bfdname]
	       [-B bfdarch|--binary-architecture=bfdarch]
	       [-S|--strip-all]
	       [-g|--strip-debug]
	       [-K symbolname|--keep-symbol=symbolname]
	       [-N symbolname|--strip-symbol=symbolname]
	       [--strip-unneeded-symbol=symbolname]
	       [-G symbolname|--keep-global-symbol=symbolname]
	       [--localize-hidden]
	       [-L symbolname|--localize-symbol=symbolname]
	       [--globalize-symbol=symbolname]
	       [-W symbolname|--weaken-symbol=symbolname]
	       [-w|--wildcard]
	       [-x|--discard-all]
	       [-X|--discard-locals]
	       [-b byte|--byte=byte]
	       [-i [breadth]|--interleave[=breadth]]
	       [--interleave-width=width]
	       [-j sectionname|--only-section=sectionname]
	       [-R sectionname|--remove-section=sectionname]
	       [-p|--preserve-dates]
	       [--debugging]
	       [--gap-fill=val]
	       [--pad-to=address]
	       [--set-start=val]
	       [--adjust-start=incr]
	       [--change-addresses=incr]
	       [--change-section-address section{=,+,-}val]
	       [--change-section-lma section{=,+,-}val]
	       [--change-section-vma section{=,+,-}val]
	       [--change-warnings] [--no-change-warnings]
	       [--set-section-flags section=flags]
	       [--add-section sectionname=filename]
	       [--rename-section oldname=newname[,flags]]
	       [--long-section-names {enable,disable,keep}]
	       [--change-leading-char] [--remove-leading-char]
	       [--reverse-bytes=num]
	       [--srec-len=ival] [--srec-forceS3]
	       [--redefine-sym old=new]
	       [--redefine-syms=filename]
	       [--weaken]
	       [--keep-symbols=filename]
	       [--strip-symbols=filename]
	       [--strip-unneeded-symbols=filename]
	       [--keep-global-symbols=filename]
	       [--localize-symbols=filename]
	       [--globalize-symbols=filename]
	       [--weaken-symbols=filename]
	       [--alt-machine-code=index]
	       [--prefix-symbols=string]
	       [--prefix-sections=string]
	       [--prefix-alloc-sections=string]
	       [--add-gnu-debuglink=path-to-file]
	       [--keep-file-symbols]
	       [--only-keep-debug]
	       [--extract-symbol]
	       [--writable-text]
	       [--readonly-text]
	       [--pure]
	       [--impure]
	       [--file-alignment=num]
	       [--heap=size]
	       [--image-base=address]
	       [--section-alignment=num]
	       [--stack=size]
	       [--subsystem=which:major.minor]
	       [--compress-debug-sections]
	       [--decompress-debug-sections]
	       [-v|--verbose]
	       [-V|--version]
	       [--help] [--info]
	       infile [outfile]

DESCRIPTION
       The GNU objcopy utility copies the contents of an object file to another.  objcopy uses
       the GNU BFD Library to read and write the object files.	It can write the destination
       object file in a format different from that of the source object file.  The exact behavior
       of objcopy is controlled by command-line options.  Note that objcopy should be able to
       copy a fully linked file between any two formats. However, copying a relocatable object
       file between any two formats may not work as expected.

       objcopy creates temporary files to do its translations and deletes them afterward.
       objcopy uses BFD to do all its translation work; it has access to all the formats
       described in BFD and thus is able to recognize most formats without being told explicitly.

       objcopy can be used to generate S-records by using an output target of srec (e.g., use -O
       srec).

       objcopy can be used to generate a raw binary file by using an output target of binary
       (e.g., use -O binary).  When objcopy generates a raw binary file, it will essentially
       produce a memory dump of the contents of the input object file.	All symbols and
       relocation information will be discarded.  The memory dump will start at the load address
       of the lowest section copied into the output file.

       When generating an S-record or a raw binary file, it may be helpful to use -S to remove
       sections containing debugging information.  In some cases -R will be useful to remove
       sections which contain information that is not needed by the binary file.

       Note---objcopy is not able to change the endianness of its input files.	If the input
       format has an endianness (some formats do not), objcopy can only copy the inputs into file
       formats that have the same endianness or which have no endianness (e.g., srec).	(However,
       see the --reverse-bytes option.)

OPTIONS
       infile
       outfile
	   The input and output files, respectively.  If you do not specify outfile, objcopy
	   creates a temporary file and destructively renames the result with the name of infile.

       -I bfdname
       --input-target=bfdname
	   Consider the source file's object format to be bfdname, rather than attempting to
	   deduce it.

       -O bfdname
       --output-target=bfdname
	   Write the output file using the object format bfdname.

       -F bfdname
       --target=bfdname
	   Use bfdname as the object format for both the input and the output file; i.e., simply
	   transfer data from source to destination with no translation.

       -B bfdarch
       --binary-architecture=bfdarch
	   Useful when transforming a architecture-less input file into an object file.  In this
	   case the output architecture can be set to bfdarch.	This option will be ignored if
	   the input file has a known bfdarch.	You can access this binary data inside a program
	   by referencing the special symbols that are created by the conversion process.  These
	   symbols are called _binary_objfile_start, _binary_objfile_end and
	   _binary_objfile_size.  e.g. you can transform a picture file into an object file and
	   then access it in your code using these symbols.

       -j sectionname
       --only-section=sectionname
	   Copy only the named section from the input file to the output file.	This option may
	   be given more than once.  Note that using this option inappropriately may make the
	   output file unusable.

       -R sectionname
       --remove-section=sectionname
	   Remove any section named sectionname from the output file.  This option may be given
	   more than once.  Note that using this option inappropriately may make the output file
	   unusable.

       -S
       --strip-all
	   Do not copy relocation and symbol information from the source file.

       -g
       --strip-debug
	   Do not copy debugging symbols or sections from the source file.

       --strip-unneeded
	   Strip all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing.

       -K symbolname
       --keep-symbol=symbolname
	   When stripping symbols, keep symbol symbolname even if it would normally be stripped.
	   This option may be given more than once.

       -N symbolname
       --strip-symbol=symbolname
	   Do not copy symbol symbolname from the source file.	This option may be given more
	   than once.

       --strip-unneeded-symbol=symbolname
	   Do not copy symbol symbolname from the source file unless it is needed by a
	   relocation.	This option may be given more than once.

       -G symbolname
       --keep-global-symbol=symbolname
	   Keep only symbol symbolname global.	Make all other symbols local to the file, so that
	   they are not visible externally.  This option may be given more than once.

       --localize-hidden
	   In an ELF object, mark all symbols that have hidden or internal visibility as local.
	   This option applies on top of symbol-specific localization options such as -L.

       -L symbolname
       --localize-symbol=symbolname
	   Make symbol symbolname local to the file, so that it is not visible externally.  This
	   option may be given more than once.

       -W symbolname
       --weaken-symbol=symbolname
	   Make symbol symbolname weak. This option may be given more than once.

       --globalize-symbol=symbolname
	   Give symbol symbolname global scoping so that it is visible outside of the file in
	   which it is defined.  This option may be given more than once.

       -w
       --wildcard
	   Permit regular expressions in symbolnames used in other command line options.  The
	   question mark (?), asterisk (*), backslash (\) and square brackets ([]) operators can
	   be used anywhere in the symbol name.  If the first character of the symbol name is the
	   exclamation point (!) then the sense of the switch is reversed for that symbol.  For
	   example:

		     -w -W !foo -W fo*

	   would cause objcopy to weaken all symbols that start with "fo" except for the symbol
	   "foo".

       -x
       --discard-all
	   Do not copy non-global symbols from the source file.

       -X
       --discard-locals
	   Do not copy compiler-generated local symbols.  (These usually start with L or ..)

       -b byte
       --byte=byte
	   If interleaving has been enabled via the --interleave option then start the range of
	   bytes to keep at the byteth byte.  byte can be in the range from 0 to breadth-1, where
	   breadth is the value given by the --interleave option.

       -i [breadth]
       --interleave[=breadth]
	   Only copy a range out of every breadth bytes.  (Header data is not affected).  Select
	   which byte in the range begins the copy with the --byte option.  Select the width of
	   the range with the --interleave-width option.

	   This option is useful for creating files to program ROM.  It is typically used with an
	   "srec" output target.  Note that objcopy will complain if you do not specify the
	   --byte option as well.

	   The default interleave breadth is 4, so with --byte set to 0, objcopy would copy the
	   first byte out of every four bytes from the input to the output.

       --interleave-width=width
	   When used with the --interleave option, copy width bytes at a time.	The start of the
	   range of bytes to be copied is set by the --byte option, and the extent of the range
	   is set with the --interleave option.

	   The default value for this option is 1.  The value of width plus the byte value set by
	   the --byte option must not exceed the interleave breadth set by the --interleave
	   option.

	   This option can be used to create images for two 16-bit flashes interleaved in a
	   32-bit bus by passing -b 0 -i 4 --interleave-width=2 and -b 2 -i 4
	   --interleave-width=2 to two objcopy commands.  If the input was '12345678' then the
	   outputs would be '1256' and '3478' respectively.

       -p
       --preserve-dates
	   Set the access and modification dates of the output file to be the same as those of
	   the input file.

       --debugging
	   Convert debugging information, if possible.	This is not the default because only
	   certain debugging formats are supported, and the conversion process can be time
	   consuming.

       --gap-fill val
	   Fill gaps between sections with val.  This operation applies to the load address (LMA)
	   of the sections.  It is done by increasing the size of the section with the lower
	   address, and filling in the extra space created with val.

       --pad-to address
	   Pad the output file up to the load address address.	This is done by increasing the
	   size of the last section.  The extra space is filled in with the value specified by
	   --gap-fill (default zero).

       --set-start val
	   Set the start address of the new file to val.  Not all object file formats support
	   setting the start address.

       --change-start incr
       --adjust-start incr
	   Change the start address by adding incr.  Not all object file formats support setting
	   the start address.

       --change-addresses incr
       --adjust-vma incr
	   Change the VMA and LMA addresses of all sections, as well as the start address, by
	   adding incr.  Some object file formats do not permit section addresses to be changed
	   arbitrarily.  Note that this does not relocate the sections; if the program expects
	   sections to be loaded at a certain address, and this option is used to change the
	   sections such that they are loaded at a different address, the program may fail.

       --change-section-address section{=,+,-}val
       --adjust-section-vma section{=,+,-}val
	   Set or change both the VMA address and the LMA address of the named section.  If = is
	   used, the section address is set to val.  Otherwise, val is added to or subtracted
	   from the section address.  See the comments under --change-addresses, above. If
	   section does not exist in the input file, a warning will be issued, unless
	   --no-change-warnings is used.

       --change-section-lma section{=,+,-}val
	   Set or change the LMA address of the named section.	The LMA address is the address
	   where the section will be loaded into memory at program load time.  Normally this is
	   the same as the VMA address, which is the address of the section at program run time,
	   but on some systems, especially those where a program is held in ROM, the two can be
	   different.  If = is used, the section address is set to val.  Otherwise, val is added
	   to or subtracted from the section address.  See the comments under --change-addresses,
	   above.  If section does not exist in the input file, a warning will be issued, unless
	   --no-change-warnings is used.

       --change-section-vma section{=,+,-}val
	   Set or change the VMA address of the named section.	The VMA address is the address
	   where the section will be located once the program has started executing.  Normally
	   this is the same as the LMA address, which is the address where the section will be
	   loaded into memory, but on some systems, especially those where a program is held in
	   ROM, the two can be different.  If = is used, the section address is set to val.
	   Otherwise, val is added to or subtracted from the section address.  See the comments
	   under --change-addresses, above.  If section does not exist in the input file, a
	   warning will be issued, unless --no-change-warnings is used.

       --change-warnings
       --adjust-warnings
	   If --change-section-address or --change-section-lma or --change-section-vma is used,
	   and the named section does not exist, issue a warning.  This is the default.

       --no-change-warnings
       --no-adjust-warnings
	   Do not issue a warning if --change-section-address or --adjust-section-lma or
	   --adjust-section-vma is used, even if the named section does not exist.

       --set-section-flags section=flags
	   Set the flags for the named section.  The flags argument is a comma separated string
	   of flag names.  The recognized names are alloc, contents, load, noload, readonly,
	   code, data, rom, share, and debug.  You can set the contents flag for a section which
	   does not have contents, but it is not meaningful to clear the contents flag of a
	   section which does have contents--just remove the section instead.  Not all flags are
	   meaningful for all object file formats.

       --add-section sectionname=filename
	   Add a new section named sectionname while copying the file.	The contents of the new
	   section are taken from the file filename.  The size of the section will be the size of
	   the file.  This option only works on file formats which can support sections with
	   arbitrary names.

       --rename-section oldname=newname[,flags]
	   Rename a section from oldname to newname, optionally changing the section's flags to
	   flags in the process.  This has the advantage over usng a linker script to perform the
	   rename in that the output stays as an object file and does not become a linked
	   executable.

	   This option is particularly helpful when the input format is binary, since this will
	   always create a section called .data.  If for example, you wanted instead to create a
	   section called .rodata containing binary data you could use the following command line
	   to achieve it:

		     objcopy -I binary -O <output_format> -B <architecture> \
		      --rename-section .data=.rodata,alloc,load,readonly,data,contents \
		      <input_binary_file> <output_object_file>

       --long-section-names {enable,disable,keep}
	   Controls the handling of long section names when processing "COFF" and "PE-COFF"
	   object formats.  The default behaviour, keep, is to preserve long section names if any
	   are present in the input file.  The enable and disable options forcibly enable or
	   disable the use of long section names in the output object; when disable is in effect,
	   any long section names in the input object will be truncated.  The enable option will
	   only emit long section names if any are present in the inputs; this is mostly the same
	   as keep, but it is left undefined whether the enable option might force the creation
	   of an empty string table in the output file.

       --change-leading-char
	   Some object file formats use special characters at the start of symbols.  The most
	   common such character is underscore, which compilers often add before every symbol.
	   This option tells objcopy to change the leading character of every symbol when it
	   converts between object file formats.  If the object file formats use the same leading
	   character, this option has no effect.  Otherwise, it will add a character, or remove a
	   character, or change a character, as appropriate.

       --remove-leading-char
	   If the first character of a global symbol is a special symbol leading character used
	   by the object file format, remove the character.  The most common symbol leading
	   character is underscore.  This option will remove a leading underscore from all global
	   symbols.  This can be useful if you want to link together objects of different file
	   formats with different conventions for symbol names.  This is different from
	   --change-leading-char because it always changes the symbol name when appropriate,
	   regardless of the object file format of the output file.

       --reverse-bytes=num
	   Reverse the bytes in a section with output contents.  A section length must be evenly
	   divisible by the value given in order for the swap to be able to take place. Reversing
	   takes place before the interleaving is performed.

	   This option is used typically in generating ROM images for problematic target systems.
	   For example, on some target boards, the 32-bit words fetched from 8-bit ROMs are re-
	   assembled in little-endian byte order regardless of the CPU byte order.  Depending on
	   the programming model, the endianness of the ROM may need to be modified.

	   Consider a simple file with a section containing the following eight bytes:	12345678.

	   Using --reverse-bytes=2 for the above example, the bytes in the output file would be
	   ordered 21436587.

	   Using --reverse-bytes=4 for the above example, the bytes in the output file would be
	   ordered 43218765.

	   By using --reverse-bytes=2 for the above example, followed by --reverse-bytes=4 on the
	   output file, the bytes in the second output file would be ordered 34127856.

       --srec-len=ival
	   Meaningful only for srec output.  Set the maximum length of the Srecords being
	   produced to ival.  This length covers both address, data and crc fields.

       --srec-forceS3
	   Meaningful only for srec output.  Avoid generation of S1/S2 records, creating S3-only
	   record format.

       --redefine-sym old=new
	   Change the name of a symbol old, to new.  This can be useful when one is trying link
	   two things together for which you have no source, and there are name collisions.

       --redefine-syms=filename
	   Apply --redefine-sym to each symbol pair "old new" listed in the file filename.
	   filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol pair per line.  Line comments may be
	   introduced by the hash character.  This option may be given more than once.

       --weaken
	   Change all global symbols in the file to be weak.  This can be useful when building an
	   object which will be linked against other objects using the -R option to the linker.
	   This option is only effective when using an object file format which supports weak
	   symbols.

       --keep-symbols=filename
	   Apply --keep-symbol option to each symbol listed in the file filename.  filename is
	   simply a flat file, with one symbol name per line.  Line comments may be introduced by
	   the hash character.	This option may be given more than once.

       --strip-symbols=filename
	   Apply --strip-symbol option to each symbol listed in the file filename.  filename is
	   simply a flat file, with one symbol name per line.  Line comments may be introduced by
	   the hash character.	This option may be given more than once.

       --strip-unneeded-symbols=filename
	   Apply --strip-unneeded-symbol option to each symbol listed in the file filename.
	   filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol name per line.  Line comments may be
	   introduced by the hash character.  This option may be given more than once.

       --keep-global-symbols=filename
	   Apply --keep-global-symbol option to each symbol listed in the file filename.
	   filename is simply a flat file, with one symbol name per line.  Line comments may be
	   introduced by the hash character.  This option may be given more than once.

       --localize-symbols=filename
	   Apply --localize-symbol option to each symbol listed in the file filename.  filename
	   is simply a flat file, with one symbol name per line.  Line comments may be introduced
	   by the hash character.  This option may be given more than once.

       --globalize-symbols=filename
	   Apply --globalize-symbol option to each symbol listed in the file filename.	filename
	   is simply a flat file, with one symbol name per line.  Line comments may be introduced
	   by the hash character.  This option may be given more than once.

       --weaken-symbols=filename
	   Apply --weaken-symbol option to each symbol listed in the file filename.  filename is
	   simply a flat file, with one symbol name per line.  Line comments may be introduced by
	   the hash character.	This option may be given more than once.

       --alt-machine-code=index
	   If the output architecture has alternate machine codes, use the indexth code instead
	   of the default one.	This is useful in case a machine is assigned an official code and
	   the tool-chain adopts the new code, but other applications still depend on the
	   original code being used.  For ELF based architectures if the index alternative does
	   not exist then the value is treated as an absolute number to be stored in the
	   e_machine field of the ELF header.

       --writable-text
	   Mark the output text as writable.  This option isn't meaningful for all object file
	   formats.

       --readonly-text
	   Make the output text write protected.  This option isn't meaningful for all object
	   file formats.

       --pure
	   Mark the output file as demand paged.  This option isn't meaningful for all object
	   file formats.

       --impure
	   Mark the output file as impure.  This option isn't meaningful for all object file
	   formats.

       --prefix-symbols=string
	   Prefix all symbols in the output file with string.

       --prefix-sections=string
	   Prefix all section names in the output file with string.

       --prefix-alloc-sections=string
	   Prefix all the names of all allocated sections in the output file with string.

       --add-gnu-debuglink=path-to-file
	   Creates a .gnu_debuglink section which contains a reference to path-to-file and adds
	   it to the output file.

       --keep-file-symbols
	   When stripping a file, perhaps with --strip-debug or --strip-unneeded, retain any
	   symbols specifying source file names, which would otherwise get stripped.

       --only-keep-debug
	   Strip a file, removing contents of any sections that would not be stripped by
	   --strip-debug and leaving the debugging sections intact.  In ELF files, this preserves
	   all note sections in the output.

	   The intention is that this option will be used in conjunction with --add-gnu-debuglink
	   to create a two part executable.  One a stripped binary which will occupy less space
	   in RAM and in a distribution and the second a debugging information file which is only
	   needed if debugging abilities are required.	The suggested procedure to create these
	   files is as follows:

	   1.<Link the executable as normal.  Assuming that is is called>
	       "foo" then...

	   1.<Run "objcopy --only-keep-debug foo foo.dbg" to>
	       create a file containing the debugging info.

	   1.<Run "objcopy --strip-debug foo" to create a>
	       stripped executable.

	   1.<Run "objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.dbg foo">
	       to add a link to the debugging info into the stripped executable.

	   Note---the choice of ".dbg" as an extension for the debug info file is arbitrary.
	   Also the "--only-keep-debug" step is optional.  You could instead do this:

	   1.<Link the executable as normal.>
	   1.<Copy "foo" to  "foo.full">
	   1.<Run "objcopy --strip-debug foo">
	   1.<Run "objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.full foo">

	   i.e., the file pointed to by the --add-gnu-debuglink can be the full executable.  It
	   does not have to be a file created by the --only-keep-debug switch.

	   Note---this switch is only intended for use on fully linked files.  It does not make
	   sense to use it on object files where the debugging information may be incomplete.
	   Besides the gnu_debuglink feature currently only supports the presence of one filename
	   containing debugging information, not multiple filenames on a one-per-object-file
	   basis.

       --file-alignment num
	   Specify the file alignment.	Sections in the file will always begin at file offsets
	   which are multiples of this number.	This defaults to 512.  [This option is specific
	   to PE targets.]

       --heap reserve
       --heap reserve,commit
	   Specify the number of bytes of memory to reserve (and optionally commit) to be used as
	   heap for this program.  [This option is specific to PE targets.]

       --image-base value
	   Use value as the base address of your program or dll.  This is the lowest memory
	   location that will be used when your program or dll is loaded.  To reduce the need to
	   relocate and improve performance of your dlls, each should have a unique base address
	   and not overlap any other dlls.  The default is 0x400000 for executables, and
	   0x10000000 for dlls.  [This option is specific to PE targets.]

       --section-alignment num
	   Sets the section alignment.	Sections in memory will always begin at addresses which
	   are a multiple of this number.  Defaults to 0x1000.	[This option is specific to PE
	   targets.]

       --stack reserve
       --stack reserve,commit
	   Specify the number of bytes of memory to reserve (and optionally commit) to be used as
	   stack for this program.  [This option is specific to PE targets.]

       --subsystem which
       --subsystem which:major
       --subsystem which:major.minor
	   Specifies the subsystem under which your program will execute.  The legal values for
	   which are "native", "windows", "console", "posix", "efi-app", "efi-bsd", "efi-rtd",
	   "sal-rtd", and "xbox".  You may optionally set the subsystem version also.  Numeric
	   values are also accepted for which.	[This option is specific to PE targets.]

       --extract-symbol
	   Keep the file's section flags and symbols but remove all section data.  Specifically,
	   the option:

	   *<removes the contents of all sections;>
	   *<sets the size of every section to zero; and>
	   *<sets the file's start address to zero.>

	   This option is used to build a .sym file for a VxWorks kernel.  It can also be a
	   useful way of reducing the size of a --just-symbols linker input file.

       --compress-debug-sections
	   Compress DWARF debug sections using zlib.

       --decompress-debug-sections
	   Decompress DWARF debug sections using zlib.

       -V
       --version
	   Show the version number of objcopy.

       -v
       --verbose
	   Verbose output: list all object files modified.  In the case of archives, objcopy -V
	   lists all members of the archive.

       --help
	   Show a summary of the options to objcopy.

       --info
	   Display a list showing all architectures and object formats available.

       @file
	   Read command-line options from file.  The options read are inserted in place of the
	   original @file option.  If file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option
	   will be treated literally, and not removed.

	   Options in file are separated by whitespace.  A whitespace character may be included
	   in an option by surrounding the entire option in either single or double quotes.  Any
	   character (including a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be
	   included with a backslash.  The file may itself contain additional @file options; any
	   such options will be processed recursively.

SEE ALSO
       ld(1), objdump(1), and the Info entries for binutils.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (c) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002,
       2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of
       the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free
       Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no
       Back-Cover Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
       Documentation License".

binutils-2.21.1 			    2011-06-27				       OBJCOPY(1)


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