👤
Home Man
Search
Today's Posts
Register

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages
Man Page or Keyword Search:
Select Section of Man Page:
Select Man Page Repository:

NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for lint (netbsd section 1)

LINT(1) 			   BSD General Commands Manual				  LINT(1)

NAME
     lint -- a C program verifier

SYNOPSIS
     lint [-abceFgHhPprVvwxz] [-i | -nu] [-S | -s | -t] [-B directory] [-D name[=def]]
	  [-d directory] [-I directory] [-L directory] [-MD] [-l library] [-o outputfile]
	  [-U name] [-X id[,id ...]] file ...
     lint [-abceFgHhprVvwz] [-S | -s | -t] -C library [-B directory] [-D name[=def]]
	  [-d directory] [-I directory] [-MD] [-U name] [-X id[,id ...]] file ...

DESCRIPTION
     lint attempts to detect features of the named C program files that are likely to be bugs, to
     be non-portable, or to be wasteful.  It also performs stricter type checking than does the C
     compiler.	The list of errors lint produces are enumerated in lint(7).

     lint runs the C preprocessor as its first phase, with the following preprocessor symbols
     defined to allow certain questionable code to be altered or skipped: __LINT__, lint, __lint,
     __lint__.	These symbols should therefore be thought of as reserved words for all code that
     is to be checked by lint.

     Among the possible problems that are currently noted are unreachable statements, loops not
     entered at the top, variables declared and not used, and logical expressions with constant
     values.  Function calls are checked for inconsistencies, such as calls to functions that
     return values in some places and not in others, functions called with varying numbers of
     arguments, function calls that pass arguments of a type other than the type the function
     expects to receive, functions whose values are not used, and calls to functions not return-
     ing values that use the non-existent return value of the function.

     Filename arguments ending with .c are taken to be C source files.	Filename arguments with
     names ending with .ln are taken to be the result of an earlier invocation of lint, with
     either the -i, -o or -C option in effect.	The .ln files are analogous to the .o (object)
     files produced by cc(1) from .c files.  lint also accepts special libraries specified with
     the -l option, which contain definitions of library routines and variables.

     lint takes all the .c, .ln, and llib-llibrary.ln (lint library) files and processes them in
     command-line order.  By default, lint appends the standard C lint library (llib-lc.ln) to
     the end of the list of files.  When the -i option is used, the .ln files are ignored.  Also,
     when the -o or -i options are used, the llib-llibrary.ln files are ignored.  When the -i
     option is omitted the second pass of lint checks this list of files for mutual compatibil-
     ity.  At this point, if a complaint stems not from a given source file, but from one of its
     included files, the source filename will be printed followed by a question mark.

     The special input file name ``-'' causes lint to take input from standard input (until end
     of file) and process it as if it were a .c file.  If the -i flag is given and ``-'' is named
     as one of the input files, the -o flag must also be specified to provide an output file
     name.

     Options

     -a 	       Report assignments of long values to variables that are not long.

     -aa	       Additional to -a, report all assignments of integer values to other inte-
		       ger values which cause implicit narrowing conversion.

     -Bpath	       Path to use when looking for the lint1 and lint2 binaries.  Defaults to
		       /usr/libexec.

     -b 	       Report break statements that cannot be reached.	This is not the default
		       because, unfortunately, most lex(1) and many yacc(1) outputs produce many
		       such complaints.

     -Clibrary	       Create a lint library with the name llib-llibrary.ln.  This library is
		       built from all .c and .ln input files.  After all global definitions of
		       functions and variables in these files are written to the newly created
		       library, lint checks all input files, including libraries specified with
		       the -l option, for mutual compatibility.

     -c 	       Complain about casts which have questionable portability.

     -Dname[=def]      Define name for cpp(1), as if by a #define directive.  If no definition is
		       given, name is defined as 1.

     -ddirectory       Use directory instead of /usr/include as the default place to find include
		       files.

     -e 	       Complain about unusual operations on enum-Types and combinations of enum-
		       and integer-Types.

     -F 	       Print pathnames of files.  lint normally prints the filename without the
		       path.

     -g 	       Don't print warnings for some extensions of gcc(1) to the C language.
		       Currently these are nonconstant initializers in automatic aggregate ini-
		       tializations, arithmetic on pointer to void, trailing commas in enum dec-
		       larations, C++ -style ``//'' comments, zero sized structures, subscripting
		       of non-lvalue arrays, prototypes overriding old style function declara-
		       tions and long long integer types.  The -g flag also turns on the keywords
		       asm and inline (alternative keywords with leading underscores for both asm
		       and inline are always available).

     -H 	       If a complaint stems from an included file lint prints the name of the
		       included file instead of the source file name followed by a question mark.

     -h 	       Apply a number of heuristic tests to attempt to intuit bugs, improve
		       style, and reduce waste.

     -Idirectory       Add directory to the list of directories in which to search for include
		       files.

     -i 	       Produce a .ln file for every .c file on the command line.  These .ln files
		       are the product of lint's first pass only, and are not checked for compat-
		       ibility between functions.

     -Ldirectory       Search for lint libraries in directory and directory/lint before searching
		       the standard place.

     -llibrary	       Include the lint library llib-llibrary.ln.

     -MD	       Pass -MD to cpp(1) causing cpp to create files containing dependency
		       information for each source file.

     -n 	       Do not check compatibility against the standard library.

     -ooutputfile      Name the output file outputfile.  The output file produced is the input
		       that is given to lint's second pass.  The -o option simply saves this file
		       in the named output file.  If the -i option is also used the files are not
		       checked for compatibility.  To produce a llib-llibrary.ln without extrane-
		       ous messages, use of the -u option is suggested.  The -v option is useful
		       if the source file(s) for the lint library are just external interfaces.

     -P 	       Enable more portability warnings: Enum comparisons, sign extension issues
		       when assigning to wider integer types, overflow warnings when assigning to
		       wider types.

     -p 	       Attempt to check portability of code to other dialects of C.

     -r 	       In case of redeclarations report the position of the previous declaration.

     -S 	       C9X mode.  Currently not fully implemented.

     -s 	       Strict ANSI C mode.  Issue warnings and errors required by ANSI C.  Also
		       do not produce warnings for constructs which behave differently in tradi-
		       tional C and ANSI C.  With the -s flag, __STRICT_ANSI__ is a predefined
		       preprocessor macro.

     -t 	       Traditional C mode.  __STDC__ is not predefined in this mode.  Warnings
		       are printed for constructs not allowed in traditional C.  Warnings for
		       constructs which behave differently in traditional C and ANSI C are sup-
		       pressed.  Preprocessor macros describing the machine type (e.g.	sun3) and
		       machine architecture (e.g.  m68k) are defined without leading and trailing
		       underscores.  The keywords const, volatile and signed are not available in
		       traditional C mode (although the alternative keywords with leading under-
		       scores still are).

     -Uname	       Remove any initial definition of name for the preprocessor.

     -u 	       Do not complain about functions and external variables used and not
		       defined, or defined and not used (this is suitable for running lint on a
		       subset of files comprising part of a larger program).

     -V 	       Print the command lines constructed by the controller program to run the C
		       preprocessor and lint's first and second pass.

     -v 	       Suppress complaints about unused arguments in functions.

     -w 	       Treat warnings as errors.

     -X id[,id ...]    Suppress error messages identified by the list of ids.  A list of messages
		       and ids can be found in lint(7).

     -x 	       Report variables referred to by extern declarations, but never used.

     -z 	       Do not complain about structures that are never defined (for example,
		       using a structure pointer without knowing its contents).

     Input Grammar

     lint's first pass reads standard C source files.  lint recognizes the following C comments
     as commands.

     /* ARGSUSEDn */
		 Makes lint check only the first n arguments for usage; a missing n is taken to
		 be 0 (this option acts like the -v option for the next function).

     /* BITFIELDTYPE */
		 Suppress error messages about illegal bitfield types if the type is an integer
		 type, and suppress non-portable bitfield type warnings.

     /* CONSTCOND */ or /* CONSTANTCOND */ or /* CONSTANTCONDITION */
		 Suppress complaints about constant operands for the next expression.

     /* FALLTHRU */ or /* FALLTHROUGH */
		 Suppress complaints about fall through to a case or default labeled statement.
		 This directive should be placed immediately preceding the label.

     /* LINTLIBRARY */
		 At the beginning of a file, mark all functions and variables defined in this
		 file as used.	Also shut off complaints about unused function arguments.

     /* LINTED [comment] */ or /* NOSTRICT [comment] */
		 Suppresses any intra-file warning except those dealing with unused variables or
		 functions.  This directive should be placed on the line immediately preceding
		 where the lint warning occurred.

     /* LONGLONG */
		 Suppress complaints about use of long long integer types.

     /* NOTREACHED */
		 At appropriate points, inhibit complaints about unreachable code.  (This comment
		 is typically placed just after calls to functions like exit(3)).

     /* PRINTFLIKEn */
		 Makes lint check the first (n-1) arguments as usual.  The n-th argument is
		 interpreted as a printf format string that is used to check the remaining argu-
		 ments.

     /* PROTOLIBn */
		 Causes lint to treat function declaration prototypes as function definitions if
		 n is non-zero.  This directive can only be used in conjunction with the /*
		 LINTLIBRARY */ directive.  If n is zero, function prototypes will be treated
		 normally.

     /* SCANFLIKEn */
		 Makes lint check the first (n-1) arguments as usual.  The n-th argument is
		 interpreted as a scanf format string that is used to check the remaining argu-
		 ments.

     /* VARARGSn */
		 Suppress the usual checking for variable numbers of arguments in the following
		 function declaration.	The data types of the first n arguments are checked; a
		 missing n is taken to be 0.

     The behavior of the -i and the -o options allows for incremental use of lint on a set of C
     source files.  Generally, one invokes lint once for each source file with the -i option.
     Each of these invocations produces a .ln file that corresponds to the .c file, and prints
     all messages that are about just that source file.  After all the source files have been
     separately run through lint, it is invoked once more (without the -i option), listing all
     the .ln files with the needed -llibrary options.  This will print all the inter-file incon-
     sistencies.  This scheme works well with make(1); it allows make(1) to be used to lint only
     the source files that have been modified since the last time the set of source files were
     linted.

ENVIRONMENT
     LIBDIR	 The directory where the lint libraries specified by the -llibrary option must
		 exist.  If this environment variable is undefined, then the default path
		 /usr/libdata/lint will be used to search for the libraries.

     TMPDIR	 Usually the path for temporary files can be redefined by setting this environ-
		 ment variable.

     CC 	 Location of the C compiler program.  Defaults to /usr/bin/cc.

FILES
     /usr/libexec/lint[12]	   programs
     /usr/libdata/lint/llib-l*.ln  various prebuilt lint libraries
     /tmp/lint* 		   temporaries

SEE ALSO
     cc(1), cpp(1), make(1), lint(7)

AUTHORS
     Jochen Pohl

BUGS
     The routines exit(3), longjmp(3) and other functions that do not return are not understood;
     this causes various incorrect diagnostics.

     Static functions which are used only before their first extern declaration are reported as
     unused.

     Libraries created by the -o option will, when used in later lint runs, cause certain errors
     that were reported when the libraries were created to be reported again, and cause line num-
     bers and file names from the original source used to create those libraries to be reported
     in error messages.  For these reasons, it is recommended to use the -C option to create lint
     libraries.

BSD					  August 2, 2008				      BSD


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 05:24 PM.

Unix & Linux Forums Content Copyrightę1993-2018. All Rights Reserved.
×
UNIX.COM Login
Username:
Password:  
Show Password