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last(1) [netbsd man page]

LAST(1) 						    BSD General Commands Manual 						   LAST(1)

NAME
last -- indicate last logins of users and ttys SYNOPSIS
last [-n] [-nTx] [-f file] [-H hostsize] [-h host] [-L linesize] [-N namesize] [-t tty] [user ...] DESCRIPTION
last will list the sessions of specified users, ttys, and hosts, in reverse time order. Each line of output contains the user name, the tty from which the session was conducted, any hostname, the start and stop times for the session, and the duration of the session. If the ses- sion is still continuing or was cut short by a crash or shutdown, last will so indicate. The following options are available: -n Limits the report to n lines. -f file last reads the file file instead of the default, /var/log/wtmpx or /var/log/wtmp. If the file ends with 'x', it is treated as a utmpx(5) format file, else it is treated as a utmp(5) format file. If the file is ``-'', standard input is used. -H hostsize Use the provided hostsize as the width to format the host name field. -h host Host names may be names or internet numbers. -L linesize Use the provided linesize as the width to format the tty field. -N namesize Use the provided namesize as the width to format the login name field. -n Print host addresses numerically. This option works only on wtmpx(5) entries, and prints nothing on wtmp(5) entries. -T Display better time information, including the year and seconds. -t tty Specify the tty. Tty names may be given fully or abbreviated, for example, ``last -t 03'' is equivalent to ``last -t tty03''. -x Assume that the file given is in wtmpx(5) format, even if the filename does not end with an 'x'. Also useful when reading such format from standard input. If multiple arguments are given, the information which applies to any of the arguments is printed, e.g., ``last root -t console'' would list all of ``root's'' sessions as well as all sessions on the console terminal. If no users, hostnames, or terminals are specified, last prints a record of all logins and logouts. The pseudo-user reboot logs in at reboots of the system, thus ``last reboot'' will give an indication of mean time between reboot. If last is interrupted, it indicates to what date the search has progressed. If interrupted with a quit signal last indicates how far the search has progressed and then continues. FILES
/var/log/wtmp login data base /var/log/wtmpx login data base SEE ALSO
lastcomm(1), utmp(5), utmpx(5), ac(8), lastlogin(8) HISTORY
last appeared in 3.0BSD. BSD
October 18, 2011 BSD

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UTMP(5) 						      BSD File Formats Manual							   UTMP(5)

NAME
utmp, wtmp, lastlog -- login records SYNOPSIS
#include <utmp.h> DESCRIPTION
The file <utmp.h> declares the structures used to record information about current users in the file utmp, logins and logouts in the file wtmp, and last logins in the file lastlog. The time stamps of date changes, shutdowns and reboots are also logged in the wtmp file. The wtmp file can grow rapidly on busy systems, and is normally rotated with newsyslog(8). These files must be created manually; if they do not exist, they are not created automatically. #define _PATH_UTMP "/var/run/utmp" #define _PATH_WTMP "/var/log/wtmp" #define _PATH_LASTLOG "/var/log/lastlog" #define UT_NAMESIZE 8 #define UT_LINESIZE 8 #define UT_HOSTSIZE 16 struct lastlog { time_t ll_time; char ll_line[UT_LINESIZE]; char ll_host[UT_HOSTSIZE]; }; struct utmp { char ut_line[UT_LINESIZE]; char ut_name[UT_NAMESIZE]; char ut_host[UT_HOSTSIZE]; time_t ut_time; }; Each time a user logs in, the login(1) program looks up the user's UID in the file lastlog. If it is found, the timestamp of the last time the user logged in, the terminal line and the hostname are written to the standard output, providing the login is not set quiet; see login(1). The login(1) program then records the new login time in the file lastlog. After the new lastlog record is written, the file utmp is opened and the utmp record for the user inserted. This record remains there until the user logs out at which time it is deleted (by clearing the user and host fields, and updating the timestamp field). The utmp file is used by the programs rwho(1), users(1), w(1), and who(1). Next, the login(1) program opens the file wtmp, and appends the user's utmp record. When the user logs out, a utmp record with the tty line, an updated time stamp, and cleared user and host fields is appended to the file by init(8). The wtmp file is used by the programs last(1) and ac(8). In the event of a date change, a shutdown or reboot, the following items are logged in the wtmp file. reboot shutdown A system reboot or shutdown has been initiated. The character '~' is placed in the field ut_line, and reboot or shutdown in the field ut_name (see shutdown(8) and reboot(8)). date The system time has been manually or automatically updated by date(1). The command name date is recorded in the field ut_name. In the field ut_line, the character '|' indicates the time prior to the change, and the character '{' indicates the new time. FILES
/var/run/utmp The utmp file. /var/log/wtmp The wtmp file. /var/log/lastlog The lastlog file. SEE ALSO
last(1), login(1), w(1), who(1), utmpx(5), ac(8), init(8), lastlogin(8), newsyslog(8) HISTORY
A utmp and wtmp file format appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. The lastlog file format appeared in 3.0BSD. BSD
May 14, 2003 BSD

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