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AS(1)				      GNU Development Tools				    AS(1)

NAME
       AS - the portable GNU assembler.

SYNOPSIS
       as [-a[cdghlns][=file]] [--alternate] [-D]
	[--compress-debug-sections]  [--nocompress-debug-sections]
	[--debug-prefix-map old=new]
	[--defsym sym=val] [-f] [-g] [--gstabs]
	[--gstabs+] [--gdwarf-2] [--help] [-I dir] [-J]
	[-K] [-L] [--listing-lhs-width=NUM]
	[--listing-lhs-width2=NUM] [--listing-rhs-width=NUM]
	[--listing-cont-lines=NUM] [--keep-locals] [-o
	objfile] [-R] [--reduce-memory-overheads] [--statistics]
	[-v] [-version] [--version] [-W] [--warn]
	[--fatal-warnings] [-w] [-x] [-Z] [@FILE]
	[--size-check=[error|warning]]
	[--target-help] [target-options]
	[--|files ...]

       Target Alpha options:
	  [-mcpu]
	  [-mdebug | -no-mdebug]
	  [-replace | -noreplace]
	  [-relax] [-g] [-Gsize]
	  [-F] [-32addr]

       Target ARC options:
	  [-marc[5|6|7|8]]
	  [-EB|-EL]

       Target ARM options:
	  [-mcpu=processor[+extension...]]
	  [-march=architecture[+extension...]]
	  [-mfpu=floating-point-format]
	  [-mfloat-abi=abi]
	  [-meabi=ver]
	  [-mthumb]
	  [-EB|-EL]
	  [-mapcs-32|-mapcs-26|-mapcs-float|
	   -mapcs-reentrant]
	  [-mthumb-interwork] [-k]

       Target Blackfin options:
	  [-mcpu=processor[-sirevision]]
	  [-mfdpic]
	  [-mno-fdpic]
	  [-mnopic]

       Target CRIS options:
	  [--underscore | --no-underscore]
	  [--pic] [-N]
	  [--emulation=criself | --emulation=crisaout]
	  [--march=v0_v10 | --march=v10 | --march=v32 | --march=common_v10_v32]

       Target D10V options:
	  [-O]

       Target D30V options:
	  [-O|-n|-N]

       Target H8/300 options:
	  [-h-tick-hex]

       Target i386 options:
	  [--32|--64] [-n]
	  [-march=CPU[+EXTENSION...]] [-mtune=CPU]

       Target i960 options:
	  [-ACA|-ACA_A|-ACB|-ACC|-AKA|-AKB|
	   -AKC|-AMC]
	  [-b] [-no-relax]

       Target IA-64 options:
	  [-mconstant-gp|-mauto-pic]
	  [-milp32|-milp64|-mlp64|-mp64]
	  [-mle|mbe]
	  [-mtune=itanium1|-mtune=itanium2]
	  [-munwind-check=warning|-munwind-check=error]
	  [-mhint.b=ok|-mhint.b=warning|-mhint.b=error]
	  [-x|-xexplicit] [-xauto] [-xdebug]

       Target IP2K options:
	  [-mip2022|-mip2022ext]

       Target M32C options:
	  [-m32c|-m16c] [-relax] [-h-tick-hex]

       Target M32R options:
	  [--m32rx|--[no-]warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts|
	  --W[n]p]

       Target M680X0 options:
	  [-l] [-m68000|-m68010|-m68020|...]

       Target M68HC11 options:
	  [-m68hc11|-m68hc12|-m68hcs12]
	  [-mshort|-mlong]
	  [-mshort-double|-mlong-double]
	  [--force-long-branches] [--short-branches]
	  [--strict-direct-mode] [--print-insn-syntax]
	  [--print-opcodes] [--generate-example]

       Target MCORE options:
	  [-jsri2bsr] [-sifilter] [-relax]
	  [-mcpu=[210|340]] Target MICROBLAZE options:

       Target MIPS options:
	  [-nocpp] [-EL] [-EB] [-O[optimization level]]
	  [-g[debug level]] [-G num] [-KPIC] [-call_shared]
	  [-non_shared] [-xgot [-mvxworks-pic]
	  [-mabi=ABI] [-32] [-n32] [-64] [-mfp32] [-mgp32]
	  [-march=CPU] [-mtune=CPU] [-mips1] [-mips2]
	  [-mips3] [-mips4] [-mips5] [-mips32] [-mips32r2]
	  [-mips64] [-mips64r2]
	  [-construct-floats] [-no-construct-floats]
	  [-trap] [-no-break] [-break] [-no-trap]
	  [-mips16] [-no-mips16]
	  [-msmartmips] [-mno-smartmips]
	  [-mips3d] [-no-mips3d]
	  [-mdmx] [-no-mdmx]
	  [-mdsp] [-mno-dsp]
	  [-mdspr2] [-mno-dspr2]
	  [-mmt] [-mno-mt]
	  [-mfix7000] [-mno-fix7000]
	  [-mfix-vr4120] [-mno-fix-vr4120]
	  [-mfix-vr4130] [-mno-fix-vr4130]
	  [-mdebug] [-no-mdebug]
	  [-mpdr] [-mno-pdr]

       Target MMIX options:
	  [--fixed-special-register-names] [--globalize-symbols]
	  [--gnu-syntax] [--relax] [--no-predefined-symbols]
	  [--no-expand] [--no-merge-gregs] [-x]
	  [--linker-allocated-gregs]

       Target PDP11 options:
	  [-mpic|-mno-pic] [-mall] [-mno-extensions]
	  [-mextension|-mno-extension]
	  [-mcpu] [-mmachine]

       Target picoJava options:
	  [-mb|-me]

       Target PowerPC options:
	  [-a32|-a64]
	  [-mpwrx|-mpwr2|-mpwr|-m601|-mppc|-mppc32|-m603|-m604|-m403|-m405|
	   -m440|-m464|-m476|-m7400|-m7410|-m7450|-m7455|-m750cl|-mppc64|
	   -m620|-me500|-e500x2|-me500mc|-me500mc64|-mppc64bridge|-mbooke|
	   -mpower4|-mpr4|-mpower5|-mpwr5|-mpwr5x|-mpower6|-mpwr6|
	   -mpower7|-mpw7|-ma2|-mcell|-mspe|-mtitan|-me300|-mcom]
	  [-many] [-maltivec|-mvsx]
	  [-mregnames|-mno-regnames]
	  [-mrelocatable|-mrelocatable-lib|-K PIC] [-memb]
	  [-mlittle|-mlittle-endian|-le|-mbig|-mbig-endian|-be]
	  [-msolaris|-mno-solaris]
	  [-nops=count]

       Target RX options:
	  [-mlittle-endian|-mbig-endian]
	  [-m32bit-ints|-m16bit-ints]
	  [-m32bit-doubles|-m64bit-doubles]

       Target s390 options:
	  [-m31|-m64] [-mesa|-mzarch] [-march=CPU]
	  [-mregnames|-mno-regnames]
	  [-mwarn-areg-zero]

       Target SCORE options:
	  [-EB][-EL][-FIXDD][-NWARN]
	  [-SCORE5][-SCORE5U][-SCORE7][-SCORE3]
	  [-march=score7][-march=score3]
	  [-USE_R1][-KPIC][-O0][-G num][-V]

       Target SPARC options:
	  [-Av6|-Av7|-Av8|-Asparclet|-Asparclite
	   -Av8plus|-Av8plusa|-Av9|-Av9a]
	  [-xarch=v8plus|-xarch=v8plusa] [-bump]
	  [-32|-64]

       Target TIC54X options:
	[-mcpu=54[123589]|-mcpu=54[56]lp] [-mfar-mode|-mf]
	[-merrors-to-file <filename>|-me <filename>]

       Target TIC6X options:
	  [-march=arch] [-matomic|-mno-atomic]
	  [-mbig-endian|-mlittle-endian] [-mdsbt|-mno-dsbt]
	  [-mpid=no|-mpid=near|-mpid=far] [-mpic|-mno-pic]

       Target Z80 options:
	 [-z80] [-r800]
	 [ -ignore-undocumented-instructions] [-Wnud]
	 [ -ignore-unportable-instructions] [-Wnup]
	 [ -warn-undocumented-instructions] [-Wud]
	 [ -warn-unportable-instructions] [-Wup]
	 [ -forbid-undocumented-instructions] [-Fud]
	 [ -forbid-unportable-instructions] [-Fup]

       Target Xtensa options:
	[--[no-]text-section-literals] [--[no-]absolute-literals]
	[--[no-]target-align] [--[no-]longcalls]
	[--[no-]transform]
	[--rename-section oldname=newname]

DESCRIPTION
       GNU as is really a family of assemblers.  If you use (or have used) the GNU assembler on
       one architecture, you should find a fairly similar environment when you use it on another
       architecture.  Each version has much in common with the others, including object file
       formats, most assembler directives (often called pseudo-ops) and assembler syntax.

       as is primarily intended to assemble the output of the GNU C compiler "gcc" for use by the
       linker "ld".  Nevertheless, we've tried to make as assemble correctly everything that
       other assemblers for the same machine would assemble.  Any exceptions are documented
       explicitly.  This doesn't mean as always uses the same syntax as another assembler for the
       same architecture; for example, we know of several incompatible versions of 680x0 assembly
       language syntax.

       Each time you run as it assembles exactly one source program.  The source program is made
       up of one or more files.  (The standard input is also a file.)

       You give as a command line that has zero or more input file names.  The input files are
       read (from left file name to right).  A command line argument (in any position) that has
       no special meaning is taken to be an input file name.

       If you give as no file names it attempts to read one input file from the as standard
       input, which is normally your terminal.	You may have to type ctl-D to tell as there is no
       more program to assemble.

       Use -- if you need to explicitly name the standard input file in your command line.

       If the source is empty, as produces a small, empty object file.

       as may write warnings and error messages to the standard error file (usually your
       terminal).  This should not happen when	a compiler runs as automatically.  Warnings
       report an assumption made so that as could keep assembling a flawed program; errors report
       a grave problem that stops the assembly.

       If you are invoking as via the GNU C compiler, you can use the -Wa option to pass
       arguments through to the assembler.  The assembler arguments must be separated from each
       other (and the -Wa) by commas.  For example:

	       gcc -c -g -O -Wa,-alh,-L file.c

       This passes two options to the assembler: -alh (emit a listing to standard output with
       high-level and assembly source) and -L (retain local symbols in the symbol table).

       Usually you do not need to use this -Wa mechanism, since many compiler command-line
       options are automatically passed to the assembler by the compiler.  (You can call the GNU
       compiler driver with the -v option to see precisely what options it passes to each
       compilation pass, including the assembler.)

OPTIONS
       @file
	   Read command-line options from file.  The options read are inserted in place of the
	   original @file option.  If file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option
	   will be treated literally, and not removed.

	   Options in file are separated by whitespace.  A whitespace character may be included
	   in an option by surrounding the entire option in either single or double quotes.  Any
	   character (including a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be
	   included with a backslash.  The file may itself contain additional @file options; any
	   such options will be processed recursively.

       -a[cdghlmns]
	   Turn on listings, in any of a variety of ways:

	   -ac omit false conditionals

	   -ad omit debugging directives

	   -ag include general information, like as version and options passed

	   -ah include high-level source

	   -al include assembly

	   -am include macro expansions

	   -an omit forms processing

	   -as include symbols

	   =file
	       set the name of the listing file

	   You may combine these options; for example, use -aln for assembly listing without
	   forms processing.  The =file option, if used, must be the last one.	By itself, -a
	   defaults to -ahls.

       --alternate
	   Begin in alternate macro mode.

       --compress-debug-sections
	   Compress DWARF debug sections using zlib.  The debug sections are renamed to begin
	   with .zdebug, and the resulting object file may not be compatible with older linkers
	   and object file utilities.

       --nocompress-debug-sections
	   Do not compress DWARF debug sections.  This is the default.

       -D  Ignored.  This option is accepted for script compatibility with calls to other
	   assemblers.

       --debug-prefix-map old=new
	   When assembling files in directory old, record debugging information describing them
	   as in new instead.

       --defsym sym=value
	   Define the symbol sym to be value before assembling the input file.	value must be an
	   integer constant.  As in C, a leading 0x indicates a hexadecimal value, and a leading
	   0 indicates an octal value.	The value of the symbol can be overridden inside a source
	   file via the use of a ".set" pseudo-op.

       -f  "fast"---skip whitespace and comment preprocessing (assume source is compiler output).

       -g
       --gen-debug
	   Generate debugging information for each assembler source line using whichever debug
	   format is preferred by the target.  This currently means either STABS, ECOFF or
	   DWARF2.

       --gstabs
	   Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line.  This may help debugging
	   assembler code, if the debugger can handle it.

       --gstabs+
	   Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line, with GNU extensions that
	   probably only gdb can handle, and that could make other debuggers crash or refuse to
	   read your program.  This may help debugging assembler code.	Currently the only GNU
	   extension is the location of the current working directory at assembling time.

       --gdwarf-2
	   Generate DWARF2 debugging information for each assembler line.  This may help
	   debugging assembler code, if the debugger can handle it.  Note---this option is only
	   supported by some targets, not all of them.

       --size-check=error
       --size-check=warning
	   Issue an error or warning for invalid ELF .size directive.

       --help
	   Print a summary of the command line options and exit.

       --target-help
	   Print a summary of all target specific options and exit.

       -I dir
	   Add directory dir to the search list for ".include" directives.

       -J  Don't warn about signed overflow.

       -K  Issue warnings when difference tables altered for long displacements.

       -L
       --keep-locals
	   Keep (in the symbol table) local symbols.  These symbols start with system-specific
	   local label prefixes, typically .L for ELF systems or L for traditional a.out systems.

       --listing-lhs-width=number
	   Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for an assembler listing to
	   number.

       --listing-lhs-width2=number
	   Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for continuation lines in
	   an assembler listing to number.

       --listing-rhs-width=number
	   Set the maximum width of an input source line, as displayed in a listing, to number
	   bytes.

       --listing-cont-lines=number
	   Set the maximum number of lines printed in a listing for a single line of input to
	   number + 1.

       -o objfile
	   Name the object-file output from as objfile.

       -R  Fold the data section into the text section.

	   Set the default size of GAS's hash tables to a prime number close to number.
	   Increasing this value can reduce the length of time it takes the assembler to perform
	   its tasks, at the expense of increasing the assembler's memory requirements.
	   Similarly reducing this value can reduce the memory requirements at the expense of
	   speed.

       --reduce-memory-overheads
	   This option reduces GAS's memory requirements, at the expense of making the assembly
	   processes slower.  Currently this switch is a synonym for --hash-size=4051, but in the
	   future it may have other effects as well.

       --statistics
	   Print the maximum space (in bytes) and total time (in seconds) used by assembly.

       --strip-local-absolute
	   Remove local absolute symbols from the outgoing symbol table.

       -v
       -version
	   Print the as version.

       --version
	   Print the as version and exit.

       -W
       --no-warn
	   Suppress warning messages.

       --fatal-warnings
	   Treat warnings as errors.

       --warn
	   Don't suppress warning messages or treat them as errors.

       -w  Ignored.

       -x  Ignored.

       -Z  Generate an object file even after errors.

       -- | files ...
	   Standard input, or source files to assemble.

       The following options are available when as is configured for an ARC processor.

       -marc[5|6|7|8]
	   This option selects the core processor variant.

       -EB | -EL
	   Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the ARM processor family.

       -mcpu=processor[+extension...]
	   Specify which ARM processor variant is the target.

       -march=architecture[+extension...]
	   Specify which ARM architecture variant is used by the target.

       -mfpu=floating-point-format
	   Select which Floating Point architecture is the target.

       -mfloat-abi=abi
	   Select which floating point ABI is in use.

       -mthumb
	   Enable Thumb only instruction decoding.

       -mapcs-32 | -mapcs-26 | -mapcs-float | -mapcs-reentrant
	   Select which procedure calling convention is in use.

       -EB | -EL
	   Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.

       -mthumb-interwork
	   Specify that the code has been generated with interworking between Thumb and ARM code
	   in mind.

       -k  Specify that PIC code has been generated.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Blackfin processor
       family.

       -mcpu=processor[-sirevision]
	   This option specifies the target processor.	The optional sirevision is not used in
	   assembler.

       -mfdpic
	   Assemble for the FDPIC ABI.

       -mno-fdpic
       -mnopic
	   Disable -mfdpic.

       See the info pages for documentation of the CRIS-specific options.

       The following options are available when as is configured for a D10V processor.

       -O  Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.

       The following options are available when as is configured for a D30V processor.

       -O  Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.

       -n  Warn when nops are generated.

       -N  Warn when a nop after a 32-bit multiply instruction is generated.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Intel 80960 processor.

       -ACA | -ACA_A | -ACB | -ACC | -AKA | -AKB | -AKC | -AMC
	   Specify which variant of the 960 architecture is the target.

       -b  Add code to collect statistics about branches taken.

       -no-relax
	   Do not alter compare-and-branch instructions for long displacements; error if
	   necessary.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Ubicom IP2K series.

       -mip2022ext
	   Specifies that the extended IP2022 instructions are allowed.

       -mip2022
	   Restores the default behaviour, which restricts the permitted instructions to just the
	   basic IP2022 ones.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Renesas M32C and M16C
       processors.

       -m32c
	   Assemble M32C instructions.

       -m16c
	   Assemble M16C instructions (the default).

       -relax
	   Enable support for link-time relaxations.

       -h-tick-hex
	   Support H'00 style hex constants in addition to 0x00 style.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Renesas M32R (formerly
       Mitsubishi M32R) series.

       --m32rx
	   Specify which processor in the M32R family is the target.  The default is normally the
	   M32R, but this option changes it to the M32RX.

       --warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wp
	   Produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are encountered.

       --no-warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wnp
	   Do not produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are encountered.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Motorola 68000 series.

       -l  Shorten references to undefined symbols, to one word instead of two.

       -m68000 | -m68008 | -m68010 | -m68020 | -m68030
       | -m68040 | -m68060 | -m68302 | -m68331 | -m68332
       | -m68333 | -m68340 | -mcpu32 | -m5200
	   Specify what processor in the 68000 family is the target.  The default is normally the
	   68020, but this can be changed at configuration time.

       -m68881 | -m68882 | -mno-68881 | -mno-68882
	   The target machine does (or does not) have a floating-point coprocessor.  The default
	   is to assume a coprocessor for 68020, 68030, and cpu32.  Although the basic 68000 is
	   not compatible with the 68881, a combination of the two can be specified, since it's
	   possible to do emulation of the coprocessor instructions with the main processor.

       -m68851 | -mno-68851
	   The target machine does (or does not) have a memory-management unit coprocessor.  The
	   default is to assume an MMU for 68020 and up.

       For details about the PDP-11 machine dependent features options, see PDP-11-Options.

       -mpic | -mno-pic
	   Generate position-independent (or position-dependent) code.	The default is -mpic.

       -mall
       -mall-extensions
	   Enable all instruction set extensions.  This is the default.

       -mno-extensions
	   Disable all instruction set extensions.

       -mextension | -mno-extension
	   Enable (or disable) a particular instruction set extension.

       -mcpu
	   Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a particular CPU, and disable all
	   other extensions.

       -mmachine
	   Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a particular machine model, and
	   disable all other extensions.

       The following options are available when as is configured for a picoJava processor.

       -mb Generate "big endian" format output.

       -ml Generate "little endian" format output.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Motorola 68HC11 or
       68HC12 series.

       -m68hc11 | -m68hc12 | -m68hcs12
	   Specify what processor is the target.  The default is defined by the configuration
	   option when building the assembler.

       -mshort
	   Specify to use the 16-bit integer ABI.

       -mlong
	   Specify to use the 32-bit integer ABI.

       -mshort-double
	   Specify to use the 32-bit double ABI.

       -mlong-double
	   Specify to use the 64-bit double ABI.

       --force-long-branches
	   Relative branches are turned into absolute ones. This concerns conditional branches,
	   unconditional branches and branches to a sub routine.

       -S | --short-branches
	   Do not turn relative branches into absolute ones when the offset is out of range.

       --strict-direct-mode
	   Do not turn the direct addressing mode into extended addressing mode when the
	   instruction does not support direct addressing mode.

       --print-insn-syntax
	   Print the syntax of instruction in case of error.

       --print-opcodes
	   print the list of instructions with syntax and then exit.

       --generate-example
	   print an example of instruction for each possible instruction and then exit.  This
	   option is only useful for testing as.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the SPARC architecture:

       -Av6 | -Av7 | -Av8 | -Asparclet | -Asparclite
       -Av8plus | -Av8plusa | -Av9 | -Av9a
	   Explicitly select a variant of the SPARC architecture.

	   -Av8plus and -Av8plusa select a 32 bit environment.	-Av9 and -Av9a select a 64 bit
	   environment.

	   -Av8plusa and -Av9a enable the SPARC V9 instruction set with UltraSPARC extensions.

       -xarch=v8plus | -xarch=v8plusa
	   For compatibility with the Solaris v9 assembler.  These options are equivalent to
	   -Av8plus and -Av8plusa, respectively.

       -bump
	   Warn when the assembler switches to another architecture.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the 'c54x architecture.

       -mfar-mode
	   Enable extended addressing mode.  All addresses and relocations will assume extended
	   addressing (usually 23 bits).

       -mcpu=CPU_VERSION
	   Sets the CPU version being compiled for.

       -merrors-to-file FILENAME
	   Redirect error output to a file, for broken systems which don't support such behaviour
	   in the shell.

       The following options are available when as is configured for a MIPS processor.

       -G num
	   This option sets the largest size of an object that can be referenced implicitly with
	   the "gp" register.  It is only accepted for targets that use ECOFF format, such as a
	   DECstation running Ultrix.  The default value is 8.

       -EB Generate "big endian" format output.

       -EL Generate "little endian" format output.

       -mips1
       -mips2
       -mips3
       -mips4
       -mips5
       -mips32
       -mips32r2
       -mips64
       -mips64r2
	   Generate code for a particular MIPS Instruction Set Architecture level.  -mips1 is an
	   alias for -march=r3000, -mips2 is an alias for -march=r6000, -mips3 is an alias for
	   -march=r4000 and -mips4 is an alias for -march=r8000.  -mips5, -mips32, -mips32r2,
	   -mips64, and -mips64r2 correspond to generic MIPS V, MIPS32, MIPS32 Release 2, MIPS64,
	   and MIPS64 Release 2 ISA processors, respectively.

       -march=CPU
	   Generate code for a particular MIPS cpu.

       -mtune=cpu
	   Schedule and tune for a particular MIPS cpu.

       -mfix7000
       -mno-fix7000
	   Cause nops to be inserted if the read of the destination register of an mfhi or mflo
	   instruction occurs in the following two instructions.

       -mdebug
       -no-mdebug
	   Cause stabs-style debugging output to go into an ECOFF-style .mdebug section instead
	   of the standard ELF .stabs sections.

       -mpdr
       -mno-pdr
	   Control generation of ".pdr" sections.

       -mgp32
       -mfp32
	   The register sizes are normally inferred from the ISA and ABI, but these flags force a
	   certain group of registers to be treated as 32 bits wide at all times.  -mgp32
	   controls the size of general-purpose registers and -mfp32 controls the size of
	   floating-point registers.

       -mips16
       -no-mips16
	   Generate code for the MIPS 16 processor.  This is equivalent to putting ".set mips16"
	   at the start of the assembly file.  -no-mips16 turns off this option.

       -msmartmips
       -mno-smartmips
	   Enables the SmartMIPS extension to the MIPS32 instruction set. This is equivalent to
	   putting ".set smartmips" at the start of the assembly file.	-mno-smartmips turns off
	   this option.

       -mips3d
       -no-mips3d
	   Generate code for the MIPS-3D Application Specific Extension.  This tells the
	   assembler to accept MIPS-3D instructions.  -no-mips3d turns off this option.

       -mdmx
       -no-mdmx
	   Generate code for the MDMX Application Specific Extension.  This tells the assembler
	   to accept MDMX instructions.  -no-mdmx turns off this option.

       -mdsp
       -mno-dsp
	   Generate code for the DSP Release 1 Application Specific Extension.	This tells the
	   assembler to accept DSP Release 1 instructions.  -mno-dsp turns off this option.

       -mdspr2
       -mno-dspr2
	   Generate code for the DSP Release 2 Application Specific Extension.	This option
	   implies -mdsp.  This tells the assembler to accept DSP Release 2 instructions.
	   -mno-dspr2 turns off this option.

       -mmt
       -mno-mt
	   Generate code for the MT Application Specific Extension.  This tells the assembler to
	   accept MT instructions.  -mno-mt turns off this option.

       --construct-floats
       --no-construct-floats
	   The --no-construct-floats option disables the construction of double width floating
	   point constants by loading the two halves of the value into the two single width
	   floating point registers that make up the double width register.  By default
	   --construct-floats is selected, allowing construction of these floating point
	   constants.

       --emulation=name
	   This option causes as to emulate as configured for some other target, in all respects,
	   including output format (choosing between ELF and ECOFF only), handling of pseudo-
	   opcodes which may generate debugging information or store symbol table information,
	   and default endianness.  The available configuration names are: mipsecoff, mipself,
	   mipslecoff, mipsbecoff, mipslelf, mipsbelf.	The first two do not alter the default
	   endianness from that of the primary target for which the assembler was configured; the
	   others change the default to little- or big-endian as indicated by the b or l in the
	   name.  Using -EB or -EL will override the endianness selection in any case.

	   This option is currently supported only when the primary target as is configured for
	   is a MIPS ELF or ECOFF target.  Furthermore, the primary target or others specified
	   with --enable-targets=... at configuration time must include support for the other
	   format, if both are to be available.  For example, the Irix 5 configuration includes
	   support for both.

	   Eventually, this option will support more configurations, with more fine-grained
	   control over the assembler's behavior, and will be supported for more processors.

       -nocpp
	   as ignores this option.  It is accepted for compatibility with the native tools.

       --trap
       --no-trap
       --break
       --no-break
	   Control how to deal with multiplication overflow and division by zero.  --trap or
	   --no-break (which are synonyms) take a trap exception (and only work for Instruction
	   Set Architecture level 2 and higher); --break or --no-trap (also synonyms, and the
	   default) take a break exception.

       -n  When this option is used, as will issue a warning every time it generates a nop
	   instruction from a macro.

       The following options are available when as is configured for an MCore processor.

       -jsri2bsr
       -nojsri2bsr
	   Enable or disable the JSRI to BSR transformation.  By default this is enabled.  The
	   command line option -nojsri2bsr can be used to disable it.

       -sifilter
       -nosifilter
	   Enable or disable the silicon filter behaviour.  By default this is disabled.  The
	   default can be overridden by the -sifilter command line option.

       -relax
	   Alter jump instructions for long displacements.

       -mcpu=[210|340]
	   Select the cpu type on the target hardware.	This controls which instructions can be
	   assembled.

       -EB Assemble for a big endian target.

       -EL Assemble for a little endian target.

       See the info pages for documentation of the MMIX-specific options.

       See the info pages for documentation of the RX-specific options.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the s390 processor family.

       -m31
       -m64
	   Select the word size, either 31/32 bits or 64 bits.

       -mesa
       -mzarch
	   Select the architecture mode, either the Enterprise System Architecture (esa) or the
	   z/Architecture mode (zarch).

       -march=processor
	   Specify which s390 processor variant is the target, g6, g6, z900, z990, z9-109, z9-ec,
	   or z10.

       -mregnames
       -mno-regnames
	   Allow or disallow symbolic names for registers.

       -mwarn-areg-zero
	   Warn whenever the operand for a base or index register has been specified but
	   evaluates to zero.

       The following options are available when as is configured for a TMS320C6000 processor.

       -march=arch
	   Enable (only) instructions from architecture arch.  By default, all instructions are
	   permitted.

	   The following values of arch are accepted: "c62x", "c64x", "c64x+", "c67x", "c67x+",
	   "c674x".

       -matomic
       -mno-atomic
	   Enable or disable the optional C64x+ atomic operation instructions.	By default, they
	   are enabled if no -march option is given, or if an architecture is specified with
	   -march that implies these instructions are present (currently, there are no such
	   architectures); they are disabled if an architecture is specified with -march on which
	   the instructions are optional or not present.  This option overrides such a default
	   from the architecture, independent of the order in which the -march or -matomic or
	   -mno-atomic options are passed.

       -mdsbt
       -mno-dsbt
	   The -mdsbt option causes the assembler to generate the "Tag_ABI_DSBT" attribute with a
	   value of 1, indicating that the code is using DSBT addressing.  The -mno-dsbt option,
	   the default, causes the tag to have a value of 0, indicating that the code does not
	   use DSBT addressing.  The linker will emit a warning if objects of different type
	   (DSBT and non-DSBT) are linked together.

       -mpid=no
       -mpid=near
       -mpid=far
	   The -mpid= option causes the assembler to generate the "Tag_ABI_PID" attribute with a
	   value indicating the form of data addressing used by the code.  -mpid=no, the default,
	   indicates position-dependent data addressing, -mpid=near indicates position-
	   independent addressing with GOT accesses using near DP addressing, and -mpid=far
	   indicates position-independent addressing with GOT accesses using far DP addressing.
	   The linker will emit a warning if objects built with different settings of this option
	   are linked together.

       -mpic
       -mno-pic
	   The -mpic option causes the assembler to generate the "Tag_ABI_PIC" attribute with a
	   value of 1, indicating that the code is using position-independent code addressing,
	   The "-mno-pic" option, the default, causes the tag to have a value of 0, indicating
	   position-dependent code addressing.	The linker will emit a warning if objects of
	   different type (position-dependent and position-independent) are linked together.

       -mbig-endian
       -mlittle-endian
	   Generate code for the specified endianness.	The default is little-endian.

       The following options are available when as is configured for an Xtensa processor.

       --text-section-literals | --no-text-section-literals
	   With --text-section-literals, literal pools are interspersed in the text section.  The
	   default is --no-text-section-literals, which places literals in a separate section in
	   the output file.  These options only affect literals referenced via PC-relative "L32R"
	   instructions; literals for absolute mode "L32R" instructions are handled separately.

       --absolute-literals | --no-absolute-literals
	   Indicate to the assembler whether "L32R" instructions use absolute or PC-relative
	   addressing.	The default is to assume absolute addressing if the Xtensa processor
	   includes the absolute "L32R" addressing option.  Otherwise, only the PC-relative
	   "L32R" mode can be used.

       --target-align | --no-target-align
	   Enable or disable automatic alignment to reduce branch penalties at the expense of
	   some code density.  The default is --target-align.

       --longcalls | --no-longcalls
	   Enable or disable transformation of call instructions to allow calls across a greater
	   range of addresses.	The default is --no-longcalls.

       --transform | --no-transform
	   Enable or disable all assembler transformations of Xtensa instructions.  The default
	   is --transform; --no-transform should be used only in the rare cases when the
	   instructions must be exactly as specified in the assembly source.

       --rename-section oldname=newname
	   When generating output sections, rename the oldname section to newname.

       The following options are available when as is configured for a Z80 family processor.

       -z80
	   Assemble for Z80 processor.

       -r800
	   Assemble for R800 processor.

       -ignore-undocumented-instructions
       -Wnud
	   Assemble undocumented Z80 instructions that also work on R800 without warning.

       -ignore-unportable-instructions
       -Wnup
	   Assemble all undocumented Z80 instructions without warning.

       -warn-undocumented-instructions
       -Wud
	   Issue a warning for undocumented Z80 instructions that also work on R800.

       -warn-unportable-instructions
       -Wup
	   Issue a warning for undocumented Z80 instructions that do not work on R800.

       -forbid-undocumented-instructions
       -Fud
	   Treat all undocumented instructions as errors.

       -forbid-unportable-instructions
       -Fup
	   Treat undocumented Z80 instructions that do not work on R800 as errors.

SEE ALSO
       gcc(1), ld(1), and the Info entries for binutils and ld.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (c) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002,
       2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of
       the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free
       Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no
       Back-Cover Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
       Documentation License".

binutils-2.21.1 			    2011-06-27					    AS(1)
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