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usage(8) [minix man page]

USAGE(8)						      System Manager's Manual							  USAGE(8)

usage - installing and using Minix DESCRIPTION
This manual page describes the installation and use of Minix from a System Administrators point of view. It contains an installation guide, instructions on how to do the initial configuration and some other info. Please read this document entirely before attempting to install Minix. The installation steps are in the proper order, but not all the information you may need is presented at the right moment. Other detailed information that may be useful can be found in boot(8) and hier(7). 1. REQUIREMENTS The minimum system Minix can be installed on comfortably is an IBM PC/AT or PS/2 with a 286 processor, 2 Mb memory, a 720 kb diskette drive, and 30 Mb free space on an AT, ESDI, or SCSI hard disk (the latter controlled by an Adaptec 1540.) Minix for the 386 (Minix-386 for short) can be installed on a machine with at least a 386sx processor and 3 Mb memory. 2. MINIX INSTALLATION BACKGROUND The objective of the installation is to create a partition on your disk and to put Minix into it. Minix really requires two partitions however, so the single "primary" partition is split into two subpartitions. The a subpartition will contain the root file system, and the c subpartition will contain the /usr file system. What MS-DOS calls "drives", i.e C:, D:, E:, Minix calls "file systems". Minix does not use drive letters, but requires that one file system is made a part of another file system by "mounting" one on the other. The "root" file system is always present and starts with the directory "/", the root of the directory tree. The root file system contains a few programs in /bin, device files in /dev, and configuration files in /etc. This is just enough to get the system started. Minix will soon extend its directory tree by mounting a file system on the /usr directory. What is henceforth known as the /usr file system contains all Minix pro- grams in /usr/bin, file system sources in /usr/src, etc, etc. The ROOT image contains the complete Minix root file system, but USR con- tains just a small subset of the /usr file system, with just enough utilities to install Minix. The complete /usr file system is split up into the USR.TAZ, SYS.TAZ and CMD.TAZ archives that are installed later to fill /usr. Let's suppose your first hard disk, which has device name /dev/hd0, has MS-DOS already present in the first primary partition (/dev/hd1), and some free space left after that. After Minix is installed in that free space the disk will look like this: /dev/hd0 Whole hard disk #0 /dev/hd1 MS-DOS C: drive /dev/hd2 Minix primary partition /dev/hd2a Minix root partition /dev/hd2c Minix /usr partition /dev/hd0 is the sum of a partition table, /dev/hd1 and /dev/hd2. Likewise is /dev/hd2 the sum of a subpartition table, /dev/hd2a and /dev/hd2c. Read the "DEVICES" sections for more information on Minix devices. 3. INSTALLATION You can install Minix automatically or manually as described the sections below. The end result is the same, but manual installation allows one to deviate from the preconfigured choices. You may wish to read the manual pages of the programs used below before you start. You may especially want to read boot(8) if your machine is different from what the majority buys, because you may need to set a few boot parameters to configure drivers. To do this type ESC to get to the Boot Monitor prompt, set the appropriate variables, use save to store the settings and menu to continue where you left off. To install the system you need two diskettes: a bootable root diskette and a diskette full of binaries to use as /usr. These diskettes are named ROOT and USR. These two diskettes may also be combined on a single high density diskette. In that case the USR part is on the c partition. Insert the ROOT diskette, boot the machine and type '=' to the menu. The Minix kernel is loaded and takes control when you see the copy- right banner. After loading the root diskette into the RAM disk you will be asked to finish the name of the device to mount on /usr. Type fd0c for a diskette that contains both ROOT and USR, otherwise replace ROOT by USR and type fd0. Login as root. 4. AUTOMATIC INSTALLATION Type setup to start the installation script. First it offers to install a national keyboard map. The names should be clear, except for us-swap, which swaps the CTRL and CAPS LOCK keys of a standard US style keyboard for people who believe that the natural place of CTRL is next to A. The default suggested between [ and ] is the US standard keyboard. The next thing to do is to make a partition, for this you are placed in a partition table editor named part. This partition table editor is very easy to use (in the author's opinion), but you will probably hate it. You can move all over the place with the arrow keys, change values, and make a mess of your partition table real quick. So if you get into trouble, type 'q' to quit, 'n' to not write the table, and RETURN to start over. Use the '?' key to get help. With the '+' and '-' keys you can select the disk device to install on, probably /dev/hd0, the first hard disk. Type 'r' to load the par- tition table of the selected disk. Either create one new partition by modifying a partition marked "None", or reuse an existing partition by changing its type to "MINIX" (hex code 81). The FIPS program can be used under MS-DOS to shrink an MS-DOS partition. FIPS splits the DOS partition in two, so one of the two can be used for Minix. You have to be absolutely sure which one. When in doubt, first use the FDISK program under DOS to delete the extra partition, and let Minix part create a new one. DO NOT use part to shrink an existing parti- tion! Minix needs a partition of at least 20 Mb, but not larger than 128 Mb (Minix-86) or 1 Gb (Minix-386). The system needs 30 Mb in compiled state. The script then wants to know the name of the partition you've created, this name is probably still visible on the screen (hd2, hd6, some- thing like that.) The new partition table is reloaded into the disk driver, and the new Minix partition is carved up into two subparti- tions, a 1440 kb root and the rest for /usr. After making /usr, it is immediately put to use to replace the installation /usr file system so that you can remove the USR diskette and insert the ROOT diskette (unless they are one and the same). The root file system is filled with the contents of the ROOT diskette and slightly patched up to work on the hard disk (/etc/fstab.) To compute the size of the so-called "second level block cache" you are asked to specify the RAM size of your machine. If you have plenty, i.e 4 Mb or more then simply hit RETURN, otherwise enter the size of your system RAM in kilobytes. You can now skip the next section and move to "TESTING", but it may be instructive to read it anyway. 5. MANUAL INSTALLATION The instructions that follow are at a very low level and require you to be very careful. The big advantage is that you know precisely what tools have been used and how everything works. The disadvantage is that you may easily make a mistake that either forces you to start over if you are lucky, or wipes out the contents of your hard disk if you are not. Only if you really want to do something different should you use a manual installation. Slavishly following the steps shown below will only make you end up with the same result as an automatic installation. Run part to make partitions to load the system into. The best thing to do is to make one large primary partition of type "MINIX" and to carve this partition up into three subpartitions for root and /usr. The assumption is that you will use the second partition on the first hard disk, /dev/hd2, and that hd2a is the root subpartition and hd2c is /usr. If you want to use the first partition on the second hard disk for instance, then substitute hd6 and hd6[ac] for the above. On a SCSI disk it will be /dev/sd2 for the second partition on the disk at target 0. See the section on devices below, and the manual pages of part(8), hd(4), and sd(4). Start part and select the whole hard disk device (the "multiple of 5" device) that you want to install Minix onto. In our example it will be /dev/hd0. Use part to make a single partition in the primary partition table of type "MINIX", then hit '>' on this new partition to make a subparti- tion table. For the root subpartition you are advised to use 1440 kb exactly. You can make it larger if you want to, but it is advisable never to let the contents outgrow a floppy. (The ROOT diskette is a copy of a root file system, and will be used to fill your root subpartition.) The second subpartition is either empty or a "scratch" partition. Minix no longer uses the b subpartition for anything useful anymore, but it has become customary to have root on a and /usr on c. (You are free to ignore this convention, of course.) Use the rest of the partition for the /usr c subpartition. When you are done check that /dev/hd2a is active (the * after the partition number) so you can boot from it later. If your disk has bad blocks then don't put the root or scratch subpartition on top of them. Make sure the inode tables in the other parti- tions don't have bad blocks either. You can put the subpartitions out of order on the disk if that helps. Subpartition tables, other than the main partition table, are not sorted by the driver. After making the partitions you do not have to reboot. The disk driver reloads the partition tables on the next access if the disk is not in use. (Open or mounted.) To be able to boot from /dev/hd2a you must place a master bootstrap in /dev/hd2. It has been placed there by part if it told you that it was creating a new partition table, but installboot -m /dev/hd2 /usr/mdec/masterboot will put it there for sure. You will start by making a file system for /usr and filling it partially. This may seem to be out of order, but you can't insert the ROOT floppy right now. mkfs /dev/hd2c readall -b /dev/hd2c | sh mount /dev/hd2c /mnt cpdir -v /usr /mnt This will create a file system on /dev/hd2c, mount it on /mnt, and copy the contents of the USR floppy onto it. The call to readall marks bad blocks on the file system as unusable, you can omit this on a drive known to be spotless (IDE or SCSI.) You can now use the new /usr in place of the USR floppy: umount /dev/hd2c umount /dev/fd0 # fd0c if combined mount /dev/hd2c /usr This little dance has freed up your floppy drive, so please remove the USR diskette and replace it by the ROOT diskette. Make a file sys- tem for the root with at least 512 inodes (files), and fill it from the floppy: mkfs -i 512 /dev/hd2a mount /dev/fd0 /fd0 mount /dev/hd2a /mnt cpdir -v /fd0 /mnt umount /dev/fd0 Remove /mnt/etc/issue to get rid of the "use setup" message that greets you when you boot, and edit the file /mnt/etc/fstab to name the devices Minix has been installed on. In our example it should look like this: root=/dev/hd2a usr=/dev/hd2c Unmount the new root: umount /dev/hd2a Make it bootable: installboot -d /dev/hd2a /usr/mdec/bootblock boot The automatic script would now set the rootdev and ramimagedev boot variables. You can do this now using the edparams command, but it is easier to postpone it until the testing phase. The settings should be: rootdev=hd2a ramimagedev=hd2a 6. TESTING By now a new Minix system is present on your hard disk. Time to see if it works. Leave the ROOT diskette in the drive and type halt. You are now going to use the power of the Boot Monitor on the diskette to boot the Minix partition on the hard disk. Use the monitor command boot hd2 to boot the primary partition Minix has been installed in. (It is "hd2" in our example.) For a SCSI disk you will have to use a 'hd' name too. The monitor uses the BIOS, so you will have to treat it as a "normal" disk at this point. The hard disk bootstrap is now showing the menu again. You can type '=' to start Minix, but you probably want to change the boot parame- ters. Hit ESC once more to get to the command prompt. The command set shows what the current parameters are. Here is an example that shows how to make a menu to either start Minix or boot MS-DOS: minix(=,Minix) {boot} dos(d,MS-DOS) {boot hd1} save MS-DOS is assumed to be in the first partition in the example above (hd1). When finished type menu to see if the menu looks right. If so hit '=' to start Minix. 7. ADDING PROGRAMS AND SOURCES TO /usr The setup command can also be used to add files from floppy sets to the system. The USR.TAZ (programs and stuff), SYS.TAZ (system sources), and CMD.TAZ (commands sources) are all installed relative to the /usr directory, so the command to use three times is setup /usr Setup will ask for the size of data on the floppies, which is by default simply the entire floppy. Don't worry if you see a few "File exists" errors while extracting, as some directories already exist. You need the USR.TAZ set if you want a working Minix system, SYS.TAZ if you want recompile the system or study it, and CMD.TAZ if you also want the sources of the simple commands. On a disk space starved machine you could opt to do without the commands sources, as they are not absolutely necessary to understand Minix. If your machine does not have enough memory to run setup /usr then type these commands manually: cd /usr vol /dev/fd0 | uncompress | tar xvfp - 8. NAMES A standalone machine will have to be given a name. As root type echo name >/etc/hostname.file to change the host name of your machine to name. 9. ACTIVE ON BOOT You may want to make the Minix partition active so that it is automatically booted. With DOS fdisk or Minix part, mark the primary parti- tion that contains Minix active. Using the menu you made earlier you can boot either Minix or DOS at a keypress. You can even set time- outs. To boot Minix automatically after 5 seconds: main() {trap 5000 minix; menu} See monitor(8) for all the details on the monitor. If you don't trust this then you can rig up a diskette that boots the Minix partition when left in the drive: installboot -m 2 /dev/fd0 /usr/mdec/masterboot The number 2 indicates the hard disk partition that must be booted, you can use the numbers 1 to 9 for hd1 to hd9. 10. DEVICES A crash course on the Minix devices in /dev: The two hard disks are named hd0 and hd5. These "multiple of five" devices address the entire hard disk, from the first to the last byte. Each disk has four partitions, for disk 0 they are hd1, hd2, hd3, and hd4. And for disk 1 they are named hd6, hd7, hd8, and hd9. These partitions may contain file systems, hd1 often contains the MS-DOS "C:" file system. Minix can use these partitions for file systems too, but you can also partition one of these "primary partitions" into four so-called "subparti- tions". The subpartitions of hd1 are named hd1a, hd1b, hd1c, and hd1d. The other partitions may have four subpartitions that are named in the same way by adding a letter from a to d. So one disk may have four partitions, and 16 subpartititions total. SCSI disks are named in the same way, from sd0 to sd39d for all possible devices for all eight SCSI targets. The two floppy disks are fd0 and fd1. Each may have four partitions named fd0a, fd0b, ... fd1d. The command MAKEDEV knows how to make devices, and DESCRIBE can tell you what an unknown device may be, or even what all devices in /dev may be if called without arguments. Devices are described fully in dev(4), and in the device specific manual pages like fd(4) and hd(4). 11. EDITORS The editors available are elvis (a vi clone), elle (a simple emacs clone), and the old Minix mined editor. Of these editors only elvis can recover your file after a system crash. Only mined is available at installation time. (All you need to know about mined right now is that CTRL-X gets you out of it.) 12. INSTALLING ON A SCSI DISK Using a disk other than a hd disk complicates things a bit. The Boot Monitor uses the BIOS, so it names all disks with hd names. So it is boot hd1 to boot partition 1, and ramimagedev=sd2a to tell Minix its root partition. If you have both a normal and a SCSI disk then the disks may be hd0 and hd5 to the Monitor, and hd0 and sd0 to Minix. 13. NATIONAL KEYBOARDS The directory /usr/lib/keymaps contains keymap tables for several national keyboards. If you have a German keyboard for instance, then loadkeys /usr/lib/keymaps/ will load the German key translation table into the keyboard driver. Copy the map to /etc/keymap once Minix is installed on the hard disk, because having to type a key sequence like one of these: loadkezs loqdkeys =usr=lib=key,qps=french.,qp on a reboot gets a bit annoying after a while. Send corrections and new keymaps to the person named below. (Do not send a Dutch keymap, buy yourself a real keyboard instead.) SUGGESTIONS
Below are a few useful suggestions. Some of the information can be of use in other situations than described here. 14. VIRTUAL CONSOLES Hold down the ALT key and press the left or right arrow key, F1, or F2. This switches the console between two login sessions. (Unless you have an old mono adapter, because virtual consoles sit in video memory, and a mono adapter only has memory for one.) Note that kernel messages, including function key output, only appear on the first console. This may be confusing, but it keeps the other consoles clean. 15. LOW ON MEMORY The normal installation requires that you have enough memory for a large RAM disk. You can still install Minix normally if you either have a high density diskette drive for a combined root+usr floppy, or you have two floppy drives of at least 720 kb. Before booting you have to set the variable rootdev to the same value as ramimagedev. This is slower then a RAM disk, but saves a lot of memory. The automatic installation script knows how to handle this new situation. If you install manually then you have to use cpdir -vx / /mnt to copy the root device to disk. When it is time to fill /usr and you only have one floppy drive then hit DEL to get out of the installa- tion script and reboot as described in "TESTING". You can then finish the installation manually. 16. LOW ON MEMORY AND ONLY ONE 720 KB FLOPPY DRIVE If you only have one 720 kb floppy drive and your system is low on memory then you can use the TINYROOT boot image. This image contains a small kernel with only the BIOS disk driver, and a small root file system. You can use this disk to boot your machine. Use the normal ROOT to install the root file system. Keep booting your machine with TINYROOT until you have compiled a small kernel for your system. Use the rootdev boot variable to select the hard disk root file system. Do not use TINYROOT for anything other than booting, always use ROOT when mentioned. 17. FLOPPY DRIVE 1 IS A HIGH DENSITY DRIVE If you would like to install from floppy drive 1 then you need to copy at least one sector from the USR image onto a diskette for drive 0. The USR bootstrap has been rigged to boot the other drive. 18. INSTALLING ON A SECOND HARD DISK Minix doesn't care if it is installed on the second disk of a system with two disks. The only problem is to get it booted. You can either rig up a diskette to boot Minix as shown earlier, or you can use the same trick on the first disk. The command installboot -m 5 /dev/hd0 /usr/mdec/masterboot will lock the first disk into booting the second disk. Note that this command modifies the disk outside a Minix partition, overwriting a bit of code that has likely been put there by DOS fdisk. First verify that the Boot Monitor can boot a DOS partition, because then the Minix master bootstrap can do it too. 19. LOTS OF MEMORY ON A 286 You will have a hard time making Minix run out of 3 Mb memory. Memory you can spare can be used for a "second level block cache" on the RAM disk. The File System uses the second level cache to store copies of disk blocks that are pushed out of the normal (primary) block cache. The size of the primary cache is compiled into the FS server, but the size of the second level cache can be set with the ramsize boot variable. Set it to a number between 0 and 512. 512 kilobytes is enough to keep most of the compiler cached. 20. LOTS OF MEMORY ON A 386+ Processes can be as big as you'd like on a 386, but in practice 4 Mb is nice. The installation script sets up a second level cache for Minix-386 of up to 1024 kilobytes. This is because the default file system cache is only 80 kb. Your first point of call is to get rid of the poorly performing second level cache and to assign the memory used by it to the normal block cache by enlarging the appropriate NR_BUFS and NR_BUF_HASH constants in <minix/config.h> with as much as you can spare. (1024 for NR_BUFS is the minimum to keep cc -c cached. 2048 is then a nice value for NR_BUF_HASH.) Disable the second level cache, compile a new kernel, reboot and set ramsize to 0. 21. LOTS OF DISK SPACE The maximum file system size is 1 Gb for Minix-386 and 128 Mb for Minix-86. (Minix-86 can handle larger file systems, but fsck can't check them.) Note that a Minix file system can only contain 65535 inodes (files), so the average file should be 16 kb to completely fill it. It may be better to make two smaller file systems. Besides, fsck takes forever on a large file system. SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION
The system has been set up with the idea that working as root is a bad thing to do. As root you are in no way protected from doing stupid things. So don't do development as root, but work as bin! Only in exceptional cases do you want to become root. Being root is fun for wannabe hackers; administrators know better. To make life easier for bin, some programs like su(1), install(1) and shutdown(8) treat bin and other members of the operator group as spe- cial and allow them the privileges of root. (One is an operator if one's group id is zero.) Operators should share the shadow password of root by having ##root in their password field. This way they all have one face (password) to the outside world, forming no greater secu- rity risk than root alone. The home directory of bin contains one important Makefile. You can use it to recompile all the commands and libraries of the system. Type make to see the usage message. If you want to compile just one command then you can simply type make to do so. To put it in its proper place you have to type make install. Read the Makefiles in the commands and lib subdirectories to understand how everything is put together. If you are tight on memory then make may fail to traverse down the source tree and also compile things. You will have to type make in each subdirectory. You can run make in /usr/src at the end to see if you've missed something or not. The login shell of bin is ash, the BSD shell. It has been modified to offer simple line editing using the editline(3) library. Ash is rather big, so you may have to change bin's shell back to /bin/sh with chsh(1) if you are low on memory. Do not change root's shell to ash, and do not replace /bin/sh by ash. It may run out of memory at the wrong moment. The kernel is not compiled from the master Makefile. To make a new kernel you have to step into the tools directory. There you can run four different make commands: make This makes all the different kernel parts and combines them in the file named image. make fdboot As above and then makes a boot floppy that you can use to restart your system with. You are prompted for the floppy device name. make hdboot First makes the image file and then copies it into the directory /minix. If there are already two images in that directory then the newest image will be removed to make space for this newer image. It is assumed that the oldest image is the most stable system image, one that always works, and that the newest image is experimental. Check beforehand what /minix contains before you run make hdboot. Remove the oldest image if you want another image to become the stable image. The Boot Monitor chooses the newest image in /minix to boot. You can use the monitor command ls minix to view the images present, and set the image variable to the full name of the image you want to use instead if the newest doesn't work. The images in /minix are named using the Minix release and version numbers with an extra revision number added to distinguish the images. The first new kernel you would like to make is one configured for your system. The kernel you are running now contains several hard disk drivers you don't need, and it does not have a TCP/IP server that you may want to have. In <minix/config.h> you can find a number of ENABLE_XXX variables that can be set to 0 to exclude, or 1 to include a particular driver. Another driver related variable is DMA_SECTORS. This variable sets the size of a buffer used by DMA based disk drivers (all but the floppy, AT/IDE, and Adaptec drivers). Raise its value to greatly improve throughput, especially writing. A value of 16 shows good results. (The BIOS driver benefits most, because it is a long way to the BIOS from protected mode, especially from 286 protected mode.) You can increase NR_CONS if you want to have more virtual con- soles. Having more consoles costs little memory, because all the consoles are kept in video memory. Scrolling speed of the console will go down if more virtual consoles share the available memory. CGA cards have space for 4 consoles, EGA and VGA can have 8 consoles. The NR_PTYS variable sets the number of pseudo-ttys. You need pseudo-ttys to be able to login remotely over a network with the rlogin command. Each remote login session needs one pseudo-tty. If you fear that the system will now run out of processes then increase NR_PROCS. Config- uring a new kernel is sometimes not enough to enable new devices, you sometimes need to use the MAKEDEV command to make new device files in /dev. For pseudo-ttys you also have to check if /etc/ttytab mentiones the new devices. New additions to the system can be made in the /usr/local tree. An empty directory tree has been set up for you and binaries and manual pages are already in the search paths. You can make a new user entry with the adduser command. The TZ variable in /etc/profile tells the time zone offset from the wall clock time to GMT. You have to change it for your time zone. (See TZ(5).) The function keys produce debug dumps, showing various interesting data about the system. F1 lists processes and F5 shows ethernet stats, which may be of use now. Read console(4) to know all the details of the screen and keyboard. 22. SYSTEM SHUTDOWN You can't just turn a Minix system off. Minix must be told to flush the modified data in the file system cache first. The following com- mands/keystrokes can be used to exit Minix properly: shutdown First alert all users and then all processes of the impending shutdown then halt or reboot the system in one of various ways. See shutdown(8). reboot / halt Alert all processes of the system shutdown then reboot or halt. CTRL-ALT-DEL Halt the system by running shutdown -h now. Minix halts by returning to the Boot Monitor, Minix reboots by instructing the monitor to reboot Minix. (Minix is just a subprocess to the monitor.) Either halt Minix and use monitor commands to escape Minix, or use shutdown -R to reset the system. FILES
/usr/ast Honorary home directory of Andew S. Tanenbaum. Doubles as the place where the default setup for a new user is found. SEE ALSO
monitor(8), boot(8), part(8), mkfs(1), mount(8), M(8), fstab(5), hier(7), console(4), dev(4), adduser(8), TZ(5), mkdist(8), shutdown(8). "Operating Systems - Design and Implementation" by Andrew S. Tanenbaum. NOTES
The notation <file.h> refers to a C language include file in /usr/include. Root and bin do not have the current directory in their program search path to avoid executing programs left around by malicious people. This means that to run foo from the current directory, ./foo must be typed. Some of the commands have changed since earlier Minix versions. For instance mkfs doesn't need a size argument anymore, and vol automagi- cally determines if it needs to read or write. Keep this in mind if you use an older Minix version to examine the newer system. BUGS
There are many PS/2 models, all different. Some will run Minix, some won't, some crippled if you lie to Minix by setting processor to 86. Almost no PS/2 has a standard disk, so setting hd to esdi or bios will be necessary. While testing a full library rebuild of this distribution it sometimes happened that some things were not put back into the library. This seems to be fixed, but we do not understand why the fix fixed the problem. So if you see strange "undefined" errors when compiling a pro- gram after a library rebuild then run make install again in /usr/src/lib/ to try and add the missing pieces. Except for the floppy driver none of the DMA based drivers know about DMA being limited to a 24 bits address, i.e. the first 16 Mb. So under Minix-386 you run a slight risk that a tar or dd command may use a buffer above 16 Mb for reading or writing to a character device. This only happens if the low 16 Mb is taken by some huge processes, and you have more than 16 Mb, of course. AUTHOR
Kees J. Bot ( USAGE(8)
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