KINPUT2(1) General Commands Manual KINPUT2(1)
kinput2 - kanji input server for X11
Kinput2 is an X window application to input Japanese text. It acts as a front-end for other applications that want kana-kanji conversion.
When invoked, after some initialization (which will take about a few to 30 seconds depending on your machine) kinput2 waits quietly for a
Japanese text input request from another client (i.e. no windows appear). When kinput2 receives a request, it pops up a window and starts
conversion process. It sends the converted text back to the client when the text is fixed.
Kinput2 has some big improvements over its predecessor, kinput, which was contributed to X11R4.
These features enable conversion process to be done at cursor position, avoiding unnecessary movement of eyes between cursor posi-
tion and conversion window. Kinput2 also supports root window style input and off-the-spot style input.
Multiple Protocol Support
Kinput2 supports several conversion protocols between front-end and client. Supported protocols are:
Matsushita jinput protocol
Sony xlc protocol
X Input Method Protocol (X Consortium standard)
Multiple Conversion Engine Support
Kinput2 can use 4 different conversion engines, Wnn, Canna, Sj3 and Atok. You can choose one at compilation time, or at run time.
Kinput2 is fully upward-compatible with kinput, so applications which use kinput as the front-end can also use kinput2. In this
case, the applications cannot take advantage of over-the-spot conversion, though.
kinput2 accepts all of the standard X Toolkit command line options. The following options are accepted as well.
-wnn This option specifies that Wnn jserver is used as the conversion engine.
This option specifies the hostname of the jserver to be used for conversion.
-ccdef This option specifies the input character conversion rule file.
This option specifies the Wnn convertion environment initialization file (wnnenvrc) for Wnn version 4.
This option is similar to -wnenvrc4, but for Wnn version 6.
-canna This option specifies that Canna conversion server (irohaserver) is used as the conversion engine.
This option specifies the hostname of Canna conversion server.
This option specifies Canna conversion customization file.
-sj3 This option specifies that Sj3 conversion server (sj3serv) is used as the conversion engine.
This option specifies the hostname of the primary sj3 conversion server.
This option specifies the hostname of the secondary sj3 server. The secondary server is used when kinput2 cannot connect to the
-atok This option specifies that Atok server is used as the conversion engine.
This option specifies the hostname of the atok server to be used for conversion.
This option specifies the default font to be used for displaying ASCII text.
This option specifies the default font to be used for displaying Kanji text.
This option specifies the default font to be used for displaying Kana text.
This option enables/disables use of kinput protocol family (i.e. kinput protocol, kinput2 protocol, jinput protocol and xlc proto-
-/+ximp This option enables/disables use of XIMP protocol.
-/+xim This option enables/disables use of X Input Method Protocol.
-bc Kinput protocol, which is one of the communication protocols kinput2 supports, uses X window's selection mechanism to notify other
clients of front-end's existence. This option forces kinput2 to use selection ``JAPANESE_CONVERSION'' (which is not a standard
selection name) as well as ``_JAPANESE_CONVERSION''. This is for backward compatibility, since many of the applications that con-
nect with kinput still use this non-standard selection.
This option specifies the height (in pixels) of the titlebar attached to popup shells such as candidate selection window. Kinput2
uses this value to compute the correct popup location of these windows.
Below is the widget hierarchy of kinput2.
There are too many resources to describe here, but you don't have to know most of them. So here is a brief description of resources which
you might want to set.
Kinput2 application resource:
This resource specifies which conversion engine to use. You can specify one of ``wnn'', ``canna'', ``sj3'' or ``atok''.
ConversionControl widget (which is a superclass of SeparateConversion, OffTheSpotConversion and OverTheSpotConversion) resource:
If this resource is ``true'', the KeyPress events intercepted but unused by kinput2 are sent back to the client when there is no
conversion text. Although this feature is convenient, it might confuse some clients since none of corresponding KeyRelease events
are sent. Also, since the ``send_event'' flag of those events are true, some clients do not accept events sent back by kinput2.
For example, kterm doesn't accept those events without specifying
in a resource file.
The default of sendbackKeyPress resource is true.
This resource specifies the height of a title bar which is attached to various popup shell windows, such as candicate selection.
When computing the location of these windows, kinput2 uses this value to pop up them at correct position.
The default is 0P.
OverTheSpotConversion widget resources:
If this resource is ``true'', the width of on-the-spot conversion window shrinks according to the length of the text on it. Other-
wise, the window never shrinks. If the performance of Xserver on window resizing is poor, you may consider setting this resources
to false. The default is true.
This resource specifies the location of status widget in case of over-the-spot type conversion. Unless client specifies the loca-
tion explicitly, the location of the status widget is determined by this resource. If the value of this resource is ``topleft'',
the widget is placed at the top left of the client window. You can also specify ``topright'', ``bottomleft'' and ``bottomright''.
If the value is ``tracktext'', the widget is placed just under the cursor position, and moves according to the cursor. However, if
the region available for conversion is too small, status is placed at the bottom left of the client area. If the value is
``none'', the status widget will never appear.
The default is ``tracktext''.
If this resource is ``true'', the color of status widget is forced to be same as the foreground color of the widget.
The default is false.
If this resource is ``true'', the status widget becomes an instance of OverriddeShell, instead of the default TransientShell. Turn
this resource on if you encounter a strange phenomenon that the status widget keeps flickering and you cannnot enter any text.
This is caused by (incorrect) focus management of your window manager, and setting this resource will stop any window management
for the widget. The result is that the widget will be totally ignored by the window manager, meaning you cannot move, resize,
raise nor lower the widget.
The default is false.
OnTheSpotConversion widget resources:
This resource specifies the display attributes of preedit string when on-the-spot input style is used. In on-the-spot style, it is
a client's responsibility to draw preedit string, and kinput2 sends some hints on how it should be drawn, which is controled by
this resource. The value of this resource should be a comma-separated list of 4 elements, and each element represents the drawing
hint of specific type of string. They represent the hints for not-yet-converted string, for converted string, for converted string
which belongs to the current clause, for converted string belonging to the current sub-clause, in that order. Each element con-
sists of zero or more drawing attributes, which are `R' (reverse), `U' (underline), `H' (highlight), `P' (primary), `S' (secondary)
or `T' (tertiary). You should consult the Xlib document for the meaning of these attributes (see the section about preedit draw
callback). The default is ``U,,R,H'', which is close to the drawing attributes used by other input styles.
CcWnn (conversion widget using Wnn) resources:
This resource specifies the hostname of the (primary) jserver to be used for conversion. If not specified, value of environment
variable ``JSERVER'' is used.
This resource specifies the hostname of the secondary jserver, which is used if the primary server is down. If not specified, kin-
put2 doesn't use secondary server.
This resource specifies the filename of the Wnn conversion environment initialization file. This file is used when the Wnn server
(jserver) is version 4. See documents of Wnn for the format of the file. The default is /usr/local/lib/wnn/wnnenvrc.
This resource also specifies the filename of the Wnn conversion environment initialization file. This file is used when the Wnn
server (jserver) is version 6. See documents of Wnn for the format of the file.
This resource is provided for backward compatibility. Use wnnEnvrc4 or wnnEnvrc6 instead.
This resource specifies the input character conversion rule file. The default is /usr/lib/X11/ccdef/ccdef.kinput2.egg.
Canna (conversion widget using Canna) resources:
This resource specifies the hostname of the canna server to be used.
This resource specifies Canna conversion customization file.
Sj3 (conversion widget using SJ3) resources:
This resource specifies the hostname of the (primary) sj3serv to be used for conversion. If not specified, value of environment
variable ``SJ3SERV'' is used.
This resource specifies the hostname of the secondary sj3serv, which is used if the primary server is down.
This resource specifies the filename of the Sj3 conversion customization file. The default is /usr/lib/X11/sj3def/sjrc.
This resource specifies the Romaji-Kana conversion rule file. The default is /usr/lib/X11/sj3def/sjrk.
Atok (conversion widget using Atok) resources:
This resource specifies the hostname of the atok server to be used for conversion.
This resource specifies the port number of the atok server.
This resource specifies the name of atok configuration file.
This resource specifies the name of atok style file.
JpWcharDisplay (widget for drawing Japanese text) resources:
font, kanjiFont, kanaFont
These resource specifies the font to be used for displaying ASCII, Kanji and Kana text, respectively. Since kinput2 changes fonts
dynamically by client requests, the fonts specified by these resources might not be used. If not specified, the following fonts
KinputProtocol (widget for handling kinput protocol family - kinput, kinput2, jinput and xlc protocol) resources:
All of the protocols in kinput protocol family use X window's selection mechanism to notify other clients of front-end's existence.
If this resource is ``true'', kinput2 uses selection ``JAPANESE_CONVERSION'' (which is not a standard selection name) as well as
``_JAPANESE_CONVERSION''. This is for backward compatibility, since many of the applications using these protocols still use this
The default is true.
This resource specifies the key that starts the conversion. The key is a hint for the clients using xlc protocol to determine when
they should request conversion to kinput2. The syntax of the specification is a subset of the translation table syntax:
where modifier-names is a combination of Shift, Lock, Meta, Alt and Mod[1-5].
The default is Shift<Key>space.
XimpProtocol and IMProtocol (which handle XIMP protocol and X Input Method Protocol) resources:
This resource specifies the keys that start the conversion. The syntax of the specification is a subset of the translation table
where modifier-names is a combination of Ctrl, Shift, Lock, Meta, Alt and Mod[1-5]. A '~' can precede each modifier name, meaning
the modifier must not be asserted. For example, if the conversion start key is ``Kanji'' key with shift key pressed and control
key not pressed (other modifier keys may be pressed or not), the specification is:
Multiple keys can be specified by separating them with newlines.
The default is as follows:
This resource specifies the default fonts to be used if the client does not specify fonts to be used. The default is -*-fixed-
When using X Input Method Protocol, you have to specify the name of the input server you want to use. This can be done by setting ``input-
Method'' resource or setting XMODIFIERS environment variable. Since some clients don't regard inputMethod resource while other clients
ignore XMODIFIERS variable, so it is a good idea to set both of them.
To use kinput2, you should add the following line to your resource file (such as .Xresources or .Xdefaults):
and, set XMODIFIERS to ``@im=kinput2''.
setenv XMODIFIERS "@im=kinput2" (for csh)
XMODIFIERS="@im=kinput2"; export XMODIFIERS (for sh)
Wnn documents, Canna documents, Sj3 documents, XIMP protocol specification, The Input Method Protocol
Copyright 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1994 Software Research Associates, Inc.
Copyright 1991 NEC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan.
Copyright 1991 Sony Corporation
Copyright 1998 MORIBE, Hideyuki
Copyright 1999 Kazuki YASUMATSU
Copyright 1999 Justsystem Corporation, Japan.
Makoto Ishisone, Software Research Associates, Inc.
Akira Kon, NEC Corporation
Naoshi Suzuki, Sony Corporation
X Version 11 24 March 1999 KINPUT2(1)