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kermit(1) [minix man page]

This  is  a  slightly  lobotomized kermit.  The help command, the
script facility, and the automatic dial  support  have	been  re-
moved.	The ? and ESC commands still work, so there is still rea-
sonable built-in help.	The only V7 kermit feature that does  not
work  is  the  ability	to see whether there are input characters
waiting.  This means that you will not be able to ask for  status
during a file transfer (though this is not critical, because ker-
mit prints a dot every so  often  and  other  special  characters
whenever  there  is an error or timeout).  Start kermit, and then
type the following to open a 2400 baud session, for example:
(It is more convenient if you put these commands  in  .kermrc  in
your home directory, so that they get done automatically whenever
you run kermit.)  This will connect you to the modem or  whatever
on  the  serial  port.	 Now log into the other system.  When you
want to transfer files, run kermit on the other system.   To  it,
type  This puts its kermit into a sort of slave mode where it ex-
pects commands from the kermit running on your MINIX system.  Now
come back to the command level on MINIX kermit, by typing the es-
cape character followed by c.  (Kermit will tell you the  current
escape character when you do the connect command.)  At this point
you can issue various  commands.   Your  kermit  will  coordinate
things	with kermit on the other machine so that you only have to
type commands at one end.  Common commands are
Filenames can include wildcards.  By default, kermit works  in	a
system-independent,  text  mode.   (In effect it assumes that the
whole world is MS-DOS and converts end of line and file names ac-
cordingly.)   To send binary files, you will want to type on both
ends before starting any transfers.  This disables CR LF to  new-
line  conversion.   If	both  of  your systems are some flavor of
UNIX, you might as well put this in .kermrc on both ends and  run
in  binary  mode all the time.	Also, if both systems are UNIX it
is recommended that you use on both ends.  This causes it to keep
file  names unchanged, rather than mapping to legal MS-DOS names.
Here is a typical .kermrc for use on
On the other end of the line, for example, the host at your local
computer  center  to  which you want to transfer files, a typical
profile might be:
Kermit has many other options and features.  For a  pleasant  and
highly readable description of it, see the following book:
  Title: Kermit: A File Transfer Protocol
  Author: Frank da Cruz
  Publisher: Digital Press
  Date: 1987
  ISBN: 0-932376-88
For  information  about  recent kermit developments, versions for
other systems, and so forth, please contact:
  Christine M. Gianone
  Manager, Kermit Development and Distribution
  University Center for Computing Activities
  Columbia University
  612 West 115th Street
  New York, N.Y. 10025
Over 400 versions of kermit are available, so it is likely  there
is  one  for any computer your system might want to talk to.  Co-
lumbia University also publishes a newsletter about  kermit  that
can be requested from the above address.

Check Out this Related Man Page

GKERMIT(1)						      General Commands Manual							GKERMIT(1)

gkermit - G-Kermit (GNU Kermit) 1.00 file transfer software. SYNOPSIS
gkermit [ options ] -s file(s) Send files gkermit [ options ] -g file(s) Get files gkermit [ options ] -r Receive files DESCRIPTION
G-Kermit is a UNIX program for transferring files using the Kermit proto- col. G-Kermit is a product of Kermit Project at Columbia University. It is free software under the GNU Public License. See the COPYING file for details. INVOKING G-KERMIT The G-Kermit binary is called "gkermit". It should be stored someplace in your UNIX PATH; normally it is available as /usr/local/bin/gkermit. To run G-Kermit, just type "gkermit" followed by command-line options that tell it what to do. If no options are given, it prints a usage mes- sage listing the available options. If an option takes an argument, the argument is required; if an option does not take an argument, no argument may be given (exception: -d). The action options are -r, -s, and -g. Only one action option may be given. If no action options are given, G-Kermit does nothing (except possibly to print its usage message or create a debug.log file). Here are some exam- ples ("$ " is the shell prompt): $ gkermit -s hello.c <-- Send the hello.c file $ gkermit -s hello.* <-- Send all hello.* files $ gkermit -r <-- Wait to receive files $ gkermit -g hello.c <-- Get hello.c file $ gkermit -g hello.* <-- Get all hello.* files Options that do not take arguments can be "bundled" with other options. An option that takes an argument must always be followed by a space and then its argument(s). Examples: $ gkermit -is hello.o <-- Send hello.o in binary mode $ gkermit -dr <-- Receive with debugging COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS -r RECEIVE. Wait for incoming files. -s fn SEND. Send file(s) specified by fn. -g fn GET. Get specified file(s) from server. -a fn AS-NAME. Alternative name for file. -i IMAGE. Binary-mode transfer (default). -T TEXT. Text-mode transfer. -P PATH (filename) conversion disabled. -w WRITEOVER when filenames collide. -K KEEP incompletely received files. -p x PARITY. x = e,o,m,s,n; default = n(one). -e n PACKET LENGTH. n = 40-9000; default=4000. -b n TIMEOUT. Per-packet timeout, seconds. -x XON/XOFF. Set Xon/Xoff in the tty driver. --x Unset Xon/Xoff in the tty driver. -S STREAMING disabled. -X EXTERNAL. G-Kermit is an external protocol. -q QUIET. Suppress messages. -d DEBUG. Write debugging info to ./debug.log. -d fn DEBUG. Write debugging info to given file. -h HELP. Display brief usage message. You may supply options to G-Kermit on the command line or through the GKERMIT environment variable, which can contain any valid gkermit com- mand-line options. These are processed before the actual command-line options and so can be overridden by them. Example for bash or ksh, which you can put in your profile if you want to always keep incomplete files, suppress streaming, suppress messages, and use Space parity: export GKERMIT="-K -S -q -p s" MECHANICS OF FILE TRANSFER To transfer files with G-Kermit you must be connected through a terminal emulator to the UNIX system where G-Kermit is running, meaning you are online to UNIX and have access to the shell prompt (or to a menu that has an option to invoke G-Kermit). The connection can be serial (direct or dialed) or network (Telnet, Rlogin, X.25, etc). When you tell G-Kermit to SEND a file (or files), e.g. with: $ gkermit -Ts oofa.txt it pauses for a second and then sends its first packet. What happens next depends on the capabilities of your terminal emulator: o If your emulator supports Kermit "autodownloads" then it receives the file automatically and puts you back in the termi- nal screen when done. o Otherwise, you'll need to take whatever action is required by your emulator to get its attention: a mouse action, a keystroke like Alt-x, or a character sequence like Ctrl- or Ctrl-] fol- lowed by the letter "c" (this is called "escaping back") and then tell it to receive the file. When the transfer is com- plete, you must instruct your emulator to go back to its termi- nal screen. During file transfer, most terminal emulators put up some kind of running display of the file transfer progress. When you tell G-Kermit to RECEIVE (with "gkermit -r"), this requires you to escape back to your terminal emulator and instruct it to send the desired file(s). If your terminal emulator supports Kermit autodownloads AND Kermit server mode, then you can use GET ("gkermit -g files...") rather than RECEIVE ("gkermit -r"), and the rest happens automatically, as when G-Kermit is sending. INTERRUPTING FILE TRANSFER G-Kermit supports file and group interruption. The method for interrupt- ing a transfer depends on your terminal emulator. For example, while the file-transfer display is active, you might type the letter 'x' to cancel the current file and go on to the next one (if any), and the letter 'z' to cancel the group. Or there might be buttons you can click with your mouse. When G-Kermit is in packet mode and your terminal emulator is in its ter- minal screen, you can also type three (3) Ctrl-C characters in a row to make G-Kermit exit and restore the normal terminal modes. TEXT AND BINARY TRANSFER MODE When sending files in binary mode, G-Kermit sends every byte exactly as it is stored on the disk. This mode is appropriate for program binaries, graphics files, tar archives, compressed files, etc, and is G-Kermit's default file transfer mode when sending. When receiving files in binary mode, G-Kermit simply copies each byte to disk. (Obviously the bytes are encoded for transmission, but the encoding and decoding procedures give a replica of the original file after transfer.) When sending files in text mode, G-Kermit converts the record format to the common one that is defined for the Kermit protocol, namely lines ter- minated by carriage return and linefeed (CRLF); the receiver converts the CRLFs to whatever line-end or record-format convention is used on its platform. When receiving files in text mode, G-Kermit simply strips car- riage returns, leaving only a linefeed at the end of each line, which is the UNIX convention. When receiving files, the sender's transfer mode (text or binary) predom- inates if the sender gives this information to G-Kermit in a Kermit File Attribute packet, which of course depends on whether your terminal emula- tor's Kermit protocol has this feature. Otherwise, if you gave a -i or -T option on the gkermit command line, the corresponding mode is used; otherwise the default mode (binary) is used. Furthermore, when either sending or receiving, G-Kermit and your terminal emulator's Kermit can inform each other of their OS type (UNIX in G-Ker- mit's case). If your emulator supports this capability, which is called "automatic peer recognition", and it tells G-Kermit that its platform is also UNIX, G-Kermit and the emulator's Kermit automatically switch into binary mode, since no record-format conversion is necessary in this case. Automatic peer recognition is disabled automatically if you include the -i (image) or -T (text) option. When sending, G-Kermit sends all files in the same mode, text or binary. There is no automatic per-file mode switching. When receiving, however, per-file switching occurs automatically based on the incoming Attribute packets, if any (explained below), that accompany each file. PATHNAMES When SENDING a file, G-Kermit obtains the filenames from the command line. It depends on the shell to expand metacharacters (wildcards and tilde). G-Kermit uses the full pathname given to find and open the file, but then strips the pathname before sending the name to the receiver. For exam- ple: $ gkermit -s /etc/hosts results in the receiver getting a file called "HOSTS" or "hosts" (the directory part, "/etc/", is stripped). However, if a pathname is included in the -a option, the directory part is not stripped: $ gkermit -s /etc/hosts -a /tmp/hosts This example sends the /etc/hosts file but tells the receiver that its name is "/tmp/hosts". What the receiver does with the pathname is, of course, up to the receiver, which might have various options for dealing with incoming pathnames. When RECEIVING a file, G-Kermit does NOT strip the pathname. If the incoming filename includes a path, G-Kermit tries to store the file in the specified place. If the path does not exist, the transfer fails. The incoming pathname can, of course, be overridden with the -a option. FILENAME CONVERSION When sending a file, G-Kermit normally converts outbound filenames to common form: uppercase, no more than one period, and no funny characters. So, for example, gkermit.tar.gz would be sent as GKERMIT_TAR.GZ. When receiving a file, if the name is all uppercase, G-Kermit converts it to all lowercase. If the name contains any lowercase letters, G-Kermit leaves the name alone. If the automatic peer recognition feature is available in the terminal emulator, and G-Kermit recognizes the emulator's platform as UNIX, G-Ker- mit automatically disables filename conversion and sends and accepts filenames literally. You can force literal filenames by including the -P option on the command line. FILENAME COLLISIONS When G-Kermit receives a file whose name is the same as that of an exist- ing file, G-Kermit "backs up" the existing file by adding a unique suffix to its name. The suffix is ".~n~", where n is a number. This kind of backup suffix is compatible with GNU EMACS and various other popular applications. To defeat the backup feature and have incoming files overwrite existing files of the same name, include the -w (writeover) option on the command line. RETURN VALUES
G-Kermit resturns an exit status code of 0 if all actions succeeded and 1 if any actions failed. IMPLEMENTATION NOTES
G-Kermit is designed to be small, portable, and stable, and is intended for use only on the "far end" of a connection; it does not make connec- tions itself, although it can be used as an external protocol by other programs that do make connections. To keep it small and stable, it does not include sliding windows, a command or scripting language or charac- ter-set translation. To keep it portable and stable, it avoids use of system services that are not standardized across all UNIX varieties and therefore, in particular, does not support file timestamps, internal wildcard expansion, and other features that are not implemented consis- tently (or at all) across all UNIXes. ENVIRONMENT
A GKERMIT environment variable may be defined (for example in your shell profile) to include G-Kermit command-line options; these are processed by G-Kermit before any options that are specified on the command line, and therefore are overriden by command-line options. DIAGNOSTICS
If an error occurs during file transfer G-Kermit sends an error packet to your terminal emulator to cancel the transfer; an appropriate error mes- sage should be displayed on your screen. ERRORS
File transfers can fail for a number of reasons: o Lack of read access to a source file. o Lack of write access to a target directory. o Lack of adequate flow control. o Use of streaming on an unreliable connection. o Excessive unprefixing of control characters. o Sending bare 8-bit data on a 7-bit connection. o Packets too long for receiver's buffers. o Timeout interval too short for connection. and many others; these are covered in the references. REFERENCES
The Kermit protocol is specified in "Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol" by Frank da Cruz, Digital Press (1987). A correctness proof of the Kermit protocol appears in "Specification and Validation Methods", edited by Egon Boerger, Oxford University Press (1995). "Using C-Kermit" by Frank da Cruz and Christine M. Gianone, Digital Press (1997, or later edition) explains many of the terms and techniques referenced here in case you are not familiar with them, and also includes tutorials on data communica- tions, extensive troubleshooting and performance tips, etc. Various other books on Kermit are available from Digital Press. Online resources include: Web: FTP: News: comp.protocols.kermit.misc Email: Also see the README file distributed with G-Kermit for further detail. It can also be found at BUGS
The speed of a file transfer depends not only on the speed of the two computers involved and the characteristics of the connection, but also on the capabilities and configuration of the two Kermit programs. Kermit is a fast and reliable protocol, but not all implementations of it are nec- essarily fast or reliable. Nonstreaming transfers on a TCP/IP connection might be inordinately slow if one or both of the TCP/IP stacks uses the Nagle or Delayed ACK tricks. Streaming is used automatically if the other Kermit supports it. When receiving files in text mode, G-Kermit strips all carriage returns, even if they aren't followed by linefeed. A backups files are not guaranteed to have the highest number in their backup suffix. AUTHOR
Frank da Cruz, the Kermit Project, Columbia University, New York City, December 1999. UNIX G-Kermit 25 Dec 1999 GKERMIT(1)
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