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Linux 2.6 - man page for ufw-framework (linux section 8)

UFW FRAMEWORK(8)			   August 2009				 UFW FRAMEWORK(8)

       ufw-framework - using the ufw framework

       ufw  provides both a command line interface and a framework for managing a netfilter fire-
       wall. While the ufw command provides an easy to use interface for managing a firewall, the
       ufw  framework  provides  the  administrator methods to customize default behavior and add
       rules not supported by the command line tool. In this way, ufw can take full advantage  of
       Linux netfilter's power and flexibility.

       The  framework  provides  boot time initialization, rules files for adding custom rules, a
       method for loading netfilter modules, configuration of kernel parameters and configuration
       of IPv6. The framework consists of the following files:

	      initialization script

	      rules file containing rules evaluated before UI added rules

	      rules file containing UI added rules (managed with the ufw command)

	      rules file containing rules evaluated after UI added rules

	      high level configuration

	      kernel network tunables

	      additional high level configuration

       ufw  is	started  on  boot  with  /lib/ufw/ufw-init.  This script is a standard SysV style
       initscript used by the ufw command and should not be modified. It supports  the	following

       start: loads the firewall

       stop:  unloads the firewall

	      reloads the firewall

	      same as restart

	      basic status of the firewall

	      same as stop, except does not check if the firewall is already loaded

	      flushes  the built-in chains, deletes all non-built-in chains and resets the policy
	      to ACCEPT

       ufw uses many user-defined chains in addition to the built-in  iptables	chains.  If  MAN-
       AGE_BUILTINS  in  /etc/default/ufw is set to 'yes', on stop and reload the built-in chains
       are flushed. If it is set to 'no', on stop and reload the ufw secondary chains are removed
       and  the  ufw primary chains are flushed. In addition to flushing the ufw specific chains,
       it keeps the primary chains in the same order  with  respect  to  any  other  user-defined
       chains  that  may have been added. This allows for ufw to interoperate with other software
       that may manage their own firewall rules.

       To ensure your firewall is loading on boot, you must integrate this script into	the  boot
       process.  Consult your distribution's documentation for the proper way to modify your boot
       process if ufw is not already integrated.

       ufw  is	in  part  a  front-end	for   iptables-restore,   with	 its   rules   saved   in
       /etc/ufw/before.rules,  /etc/ufw/after.rules  and  /lib/ufw/user.rules. Administrators can
       customize before.rules and after.rules as desired using the standard iptables-restore syn-
       tax.  Rules are evaluated as follows: before.rules first, user.rules next, and after.rules
       last. IPv6 rules are evaluated in the same way, with the rules files named  before6.rules,
       user6.rules  and after6.rules. Please note that ufw status only shows rules added with ufw
       and not the rules found in the /etc/ufw rules files.

       Important: ufw only uses the *filter table by default. You may add any other  tables  such
       as  *nat,  *raw and *mangle as desired. For each table a corresponding COMMIT statement is

       After modifying any of these files, you must reload ufw for the rules to take effect.  See
       the EXAMPLES section for common uses of these rules files.

       Netfilter  has  many different connection tracking modules. These modules are aware of the
       underlying protocol and allow the administrator to simplify his or her rule sets. You  can
       adjust  which netfilter modules to load by adjusting IPT_MODULES in /etc/default/ufw. Some
       popular modules to load are:


       ufw  will  read	in  /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf  on  boot  when  enabled.   Please   note   that
       /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf    overrides    values    in    the   system   systcl.conf	 (usually
       /etc/sysctl.conf). Administrators can change the file used by modifying /etc/default/ufw.

       IPv6 is enabled by default. When disabled, all incoming, outgoing  and  forwarded  packets
       are  dropped,  with  the  exception  of traffic on the loopback interface.  To adjust this
       behavior, set IPV6 to 'yes' in /etc/default/ufw. See the ufw manual page for details.

       As mentioned, ufw loads its rules files into the kernel by using the iptables-restore  and
       ip6tables-restore  commands.  Users  wanting  to add rules to the ufw rules files manually
       must be familiar with these as well as the iptables and ip6tables commands. Below are some
       common  examples  of  using  the  ufw rules files.  All examples assume IPv4 only and that
       DEFAULT_FORWARD_POLICY in /etc/default/ufw is set to DROP.

   IP Masquerading
       To allow IP masquerading for computers from the network to share the single  IP
       address on eth0:

       Edit /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf to have:

       Add to the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules, after the *filter section:
	       -A POSTROUTING -s -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE

       If  your firewall is using IPv6 tunnels or 6to4 and is also doing NAT, then you should not
       usually masquerade protocol '41' (ipv6)	packets.  For  example,  instead  of  the  above,
       /etc/ufw/before.rules can be adjusted to have:
	       -A POSTROUTING -s --protocol ! 41 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE

   Port Redirections
       To forward tcp port 80 on eth0 to go to the webserver at

       Edit /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf to have:

       Add to the *filter section of /etc/ufw/before.rules:
	       -A ufw-before-forward -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED \
		 -j ACCEPT
	       -A ufw-before-forward -m state --state NEW -i eth0 \
		 -d -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT

       Add to the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules, after the *filter section:
	       :PREROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
	       -A PREROUTING -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 80 -j DNAT \

   Egress filtering
       To block RFC1918 addresses going out of eth0:

       Add in the *filter section of /etc/ufw/before.rules:
	       -A ufw-before-forward -o eth0 -d -j REJECT
	       -A ufw-before-forward -o eth0 -d -j REJECT
	       -A ufw-before-forward -o eth0 -d -j REJECT

   Full example
       This example combines the other examples and demonstrates a simple routing firewall. Warn-
       ing: this setup is only an example to demonstrate the functionality of the  ufw	framework
       in  a concise and simple manner and should not be used in production without understanding
       what each part does and does not do. Your firewall will undoubtedly want to be less open.

       This router/firewall has two interfaces: eth0 (Internet facing) and eth1  (internal  LAN).
       Internal clients have addresses on the network and should be able to connect to
       anywhere on the Internet. Connections to port 80 from the Internet should  be  forward  to  Access  to ssh port 22 from the administrative workstation ( to this
       machine should be allowed. Also make sure no internal traffic goes to the Internet.

       Edit /etc/ufw/sysctl.conf to have:

       Add to the *filter section of /etc/ufw/before.rules:
	       -A ufw-before-forward -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED \
		 -j ACCEPT

	       -A ufw-before-forward -i eth1 -s -o eth0 -m state \
		 --state NEW -j ACCEPT

	       -A ufw-before-forward -m state --state NEW -i eth0 \
		 -d -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT

	       -A ufw-before-forward -o eth0 -d -j REJECT
	       -A ufw-before-forward -o eth0 -d -j REJECT
	       -A ufw-before-forward -o eth0 -d -j REJECT

       Add to the end of /etc/ufw/before.rules, after the *filter section:
	       :PREROUTING ACCEPT [0:0]
	       -A PREROUTING -p tcp -i eth0 --dport 80 -j DNAT \
	       -A POSTROUTING -s -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE

       For allowing ssh on eth1 from, use the ufw command:
	       # ufw allow in on eth1 from to any port 22 proto tcp

       ufw(8), iptables(8), ip6tables(8), iptables-restore(8),	ip6tables-restore(8),  sysctl(8),

       ufw is Copyright 2008-2009, Canonical Ltd.

       ufw and this manual page was originally written by Jamie Strandboge <jamie@canonical.com>

August 2009									 UFW FRAMEWORK(8)

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