PAM_NAMESPACE(8) Linux-PAM Manual PAM_NAMESPACE(8)
pam_namespace - PAM module for configuring namespace for a session
pam_namespace.so [debug] [unmnt_remnt] [unmnt_only] [require_selinux] [gen_hash]
[ignore_config_error] [ignore_instance_parent_mode] [no_unmount_on_close]
The pam_namespace PAM module sets up a private namespace for a session with
polyinstantiated directories. A polyinstantiated directory provides a different instance
of itself based on user name, or when using SELinux, user name, security context or both.
If an executable script /etc/security/namespace.init exists, it is used to initialize the
instance directory after it is set up and mounted on the polyinstantiated directory. The
script receives the polyinstantiated directory path, the instance directory path, flag
whether the instance directory was newly created (0 for no, 1 for yes), and the user name
as its arguments.
The pam_namespace module disassociates the session namespace from the parent namespace.
Any mounts/unmounts performed in the parent namespace, such as mounting of devices, are
not reflected in the session namespace. To propagate selected mount/unmount events from
the parent namespace into the disassociated session namespace, an administrator may use
the special shared-subtree feature. For additional information on shared-subtree feature,
please refer to the mount(8) man page and the shared-subtree description at
http://lwn.net/Articles/159077 and http://lwn.net/Articles/159092.
A lot of debug information is logged using syslog
For programs such as su and newrole, the login session has already setup a
polyinstantiated namespace. For these programs, polyinstantiation is performed based
on new user id or security context, however the command first needs to undo the
polyinstantiation performed by login. This argument instructs the command to first
undo previous polyinstantiation before proceeding with new polyinstantiation based on
For trusted programs that want to undo any existing bind mounts and process instance
directories on their own, this argument allows them to unmount currently mounted
If selinux is not enabled, return failure
Instead of using the security context string for the instance name, generate and use
its md5 hash.
If a line in the configuration file corresponding to a polyinstantiated directory
contains format error, skip that line process the next line. Without this option, pam
will return an error to the calling program resulting in termination of the session.
Instance parent directories by default are expected to have the restrictive mode of
000. Using this option, an administrator can choose to ignore the mode of the instance
parent. This option should be used with caution as it will reduce security and
isolation goals of the polyinstantiation mechanism.
For certain trusted programs such as newrole, open session is called from a child
process while the parent performs close session and pam end functions. For these
commands use this option to instruct pam_close_session to not unmount the bind mounted
polyinstantiated directory in the parent.
Useful for services which do not change the SELinux context with setexeccon call. The
module will use the current SELinux context of the calling process for the level and
Useful for services which do not use pam_selinux for changing the SELinux context with
setexeccon call. The module will use the default SELinux context of the user for the
level and context polyinstantiation.
MODULE TYPES PROVIDED
Only the session module type is provided. The module must not be called from multithreaded
Namespace setup was successful.
Unexpected system error occurred while setting up namespace.
Unexpected namespace configuration error occurred.
Main configuration file
Directory for additional configuration files
Init script for instance directories
For the <service>s you need polyinstantiation (login for example) put the following line
in /etc/pam.d/<service> as the last line for session group:
session required pam_namespace.so [arguments]
To use polyinstantiation with graphical display manager gdm, insert the following line,
before exit 0, in /etc/gdm/PostSession/Default:
This allows gdm to restart after each session and appropriately adjust namespaces of
display manager and the X server. If polyinstantiation of /tmp is desired along with the
graphical environment, then additional configuration changes are needed to address the
interaction of X server and font server namespaces with their use of /tmp to create
communication sockets. Please use the initialization script /etc/security/namespace.init
to ensure that the X server and its clients can appropriately access the communication
socket X0. Please refer to the sample instructions provided in the comment section of the
instance initialization script /etc/security/namespace.init. In addition, perform the
following changes to use graphical environment with polyinstantiation of /tmp:
1. Disable the use of font server by commenting out "FontPath"
line in /etc/X11/xorg.conf. If you do want to use the font server
then you will have to augment the instance initialization
script to appropriately provide /tmp/.font-unix from the
2. Ensure that the gdm service is setup to use pam_namespace,
as described above, by modifying /etc/pam.d/gdm.
3. Ensure that the display manager is configured to restart X server
with each new session. This default setup can be verified by
making sure that /usr/share/gdm/defaults.conf contains
"AlwaysRestartServer=true", and it is not overridden by
namespace.conf(5), pam.d(5), mount(8), pam(7).
The namespace setup scheme was designed by Stephen Smalley, Janak Desai and Chad Sellers.
The pam_namespace PAM module was developed by Janak Desai <email@example.com>, Chad Sellers
<firstname.lastname@example.org> and Steve Grubb <email@example.com>. Additional improvements by
Xavier Toth <firstname.lastname@example.org> and Tomas Mraz <email@example.com>.
Linux-PAM Manual 06/04/2011 PAM_NAMESPACE(8)