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MAKEDEV(8)				Make Linux Devices			       MAKEDEV(8)

       MAKEDEV - create devices

       cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ update ]
       cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ generic ] [ local ] [ group-keyword ... device ... ]
       cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ -d ] device ...

       MAKEDEV is a script that will create the devices in /dev used to interface with drivers in
       the kernel.

       Note that programs giving the error ``ENOENT: No such file or directory''  normally  means
       that  the  device  file	is missing, whereas ``ENODEV: No such device'' normally means the
       kernel does not have the driver configured or loaded.

       -n     Do not actually update the devices, just print the actions that would be performed.

       -d     Delete the devices.  The main use for this flag is by MAKEDEV itself.

       -v     Be verbose.  Print out the actions as they are performed.  This is the same  output
	      as produced by -n.

       Since  there  is  currently no standardisation in what names are used for system users and
       groups, it is possible that you may need to modify MAKEDEV to  reflect  your  site's  set-
       tings.	Near the top of the file is a mapping from device type to user, group and permis-
       sions (e.g. all CD-ROM devices are set from the $cdrom variable).  If you wish  to  change
       the defaults, this is the section to edit.

       update This  only  works on kernels which have /proc/interrupts (introduced during 1.1.x).
	      This file is scanned to see what devices are currently configured into the  kernel,
	      and  this is compared with the previous settings stored in the file called DEVICES.
	      Devices which are new since then or have a different major number are created,  and
	      those which are no longer configured are deleted.

	      Create  a generic subset of devices.  This subset consists of the standard devices,
	      plus floppy drives, various hard drives, CD-ROM drives,  pseudo-terminals,  console
	      devices,	basic serial devices, busmice, audio devices, video framebuffers, printer
	      ports, and some specialized devices. The generic subset varies  somewhat	according
	      to architecture; see the /dev/MAKEDEV script itself for details.

       local  This  simply  runs  MAKEDEV.local.   This  is  a	script	that can create any local

       MAKEDEV creates groups of devices when passed keywords for the group.  Each listing  below
       shows  the  MAKEDEV keyword and then lists the devices which will be created. Many devices
       can also be specified individually.

       std    Creates this group of standard devices: mem for access to physical memory, kmem for
	      access  to  kernel  virtual  memory, null the null device (infinite sink), port for
	      access to I/O ports, zero the null byte source (infinite source), core,  a  symlink
	      to /proc/kcore (for kernel debugging), full which always returns ENOSPACE on write,
	      random and urandom random byte generators, and tty to access the controlling tty of
	      a  process.  The	loopback disk devices loop0 through loop7 are also created in the
	      std group.  These allow you to use a regular file as a block device.  A  filesystem
	      image  can  be  mounted,	and used as though it were a filesystem on a partition or
	      other block device.  loop may also be used as a separate keyword to  create  the	8
	      loop  devices.  Finally, the ram group of memory devices is also created by the std
	      keyword (see below).

       ram    This is the keyword used to generate the ramdisk devices	ram{0..16}  and  the  ram
	      symlink. This group does not include initrd.

       initrd Ramdisk  which  has been pre-initialized by a bootloader.  initrd is not created in
	      the ram group; it must be specifically included in the command line if you want  it
	      to be created.

       cpu or microcode
	      Creates  the  CPU  microcode  update  interface  in  the	cpu/ folder, with devices
	      microcode, and subfolders {0..3} each containing devices msr and cpuid.

       rom    Creates the rom{0..7} rrom{0..7} flaxh{0..7} and	rflash{0..7}  flash  memory  card
	      devices.	rrom and rflash devices are read-only.

	      This  keyword  creates  virtual consoles; tty{0..63} devices, the corresponding vcs
	      and vcsa devices which are used to generate screen-dumps, and  the  console  device
	      itself  plus  appropriate  symlinks.   To create the console device alone, use con-
	      soleonly.  The device tty0 is the currently active  virtual  console.  The  console
	      device serves the same function.

       pty    This  keyword  creates  the  Pseudo-TTY  masters	pty{a..e,p..z}	and corresponding
	      tty{a..e,p..z} devices, along with ptmx.	Each possible argument will create a bank
	      of 16 master and slave pairs.  The master pseudo-terminals are pty{p..s}{0..9a..f},
	      and the slaves are tty{p..s}{0..9a..f}.

	      Standard serial ports. There is no group keyword, you must specify these	individu-
	      ally.  However  ttyS{0..3}  are created under the generic option for most architec-

       cyclades or ttyC
	      Creates Cyclades ports ttyC{0..31}.

       digi or ttyD
	      Creates Digiboard serial card ports ttyD{0..15}.

       stallion or ttyE
	      Creates Stallion devices ttyE{0..255} and staliomem{0..3}.

       computone or ttyF
	      Creates  CompuTone   serial   card   ports   ttyH{0..255}   and	special   devices
	      ip2ipl{0,4,8,12} and ip2stat{1,5,9,13}.

       chase or ttyH
	      Creates Chase serial card ports ttyH{0..15}.

       isdnmodem or ttyI
	      Creates isdn4linux virtual modem ports ttyI{0..63}.

	      Also creates isdn4linux virtual modem ports ttyI{0..7}.

	      Creates  ISDN  BRI  driver devices isdn{0..63} isdnctrl{0..63} ippp{0..63} and isd-

	      Also creates ISDN BRI driver devices isdn{0..7} isdnctrl{0..7} ippp{0..7} and  isd-
	      ninfo.   The isdn-ippp keyword can be used separately to create only the ippp{0..7}

       ppp    Creates a device independent PPP interface.

       dcbri  Creates Spellcaster DataComm/BRI ISDN card devices dcbri{0..3}.

       riscom or ttyL
	      Creates Riscom serial card ports ttyL{0..15}.

       PAM or ttyM
	      Creates PAM multimodem (or ISI serial card) ports ttyM{0..15}.

       ESP or ttyP
	      Creates ESP ports ttyP{0..4}.

       rocketport or ttyR
	      Creates Rocketport devices ttyR{0..63}.

       ttyV   Creates Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller ports ttyV{0..15}.

       specialixIO8 or ttyW
	      Creates Specialix IO8+ ports ttyW{0..15}.

       specialix or ttyX
	      Creates Specialix ports ttyX{0..15}.

       i2c    Creates i2c{0..7} devices for the I2C bus interface.

       tlk    Philips SAA5249 Teletext signal decoder {2.6} ports tlk{0..3}.

       lp     Creates the standard parallel ports lp0, lp1, and lp2 normally used  for	printers.
	      These  correspond to ports at 0x3bc, 0x378 and 0x278.  Hence, on some machines, the
	      first printer port may actually be lp1.

       par    Alternative to lp.  The same ports are created, but are named par{0..2} instead  of

	      Creates raw parallel ports parport0, parport1, and parport2.

       slm    Creates the Atari SLM ACSI laser printer (68k/Atari) ports slm{0..3}.

       pg     Parallel port generic ATAPI interface (devices pg{0..3}.

       paride Parallel	port  IDE  disk devices pd{a..d} with 15 partitions on each. Also creates
	      pcd{0..3} and pf{0..3}.

       netlink or tap
	      Creates NetLink devices route skip fwmonitor and tap{0..15} Ethertap devices.   The
	      tapx  virtual ethernet device was designed as low level kernel support for Ethernet
	      tunneling. Userland application can write Ethernet frame to /dev/tapX and the  ker-
	      nel  will receive this frame from tapX interface.  Every frame the kernel writes to
	      a tapX interface can be read by  a  userland  application  from  the  corresponding
	      /dev/tapX device.

       enskip ENskip kernel encryption package.

       qng    ComScire Quantum Noise Generator.

       ipsec  The Free S/WAN implementation of IPSEC.

       adb    On  powerpc, creates adb for the Apple Data Bus and adbmouse.  On m68k, adb creates
	      the ACSI disk device adb and partitions adb1 through adb15.

	      Creates the scc{0..7} and bc{0..3} device groups.

       comx   Creates COMX devices comx{0..4}.

       irda   Creates IrCOMM devices (IrDA serial/parallel emulation) ircomm0 ircomm1 irlpt0  and

       comedi Control and Measurement devices comedi{0..3}.

	      This  keyword  creates  the  following  devices: logibm (Logitech bus mouse), psaux
	      (PS/2-style mouse), inportbm (Microsoft Inport bus mouse) and  atibm  (ATI  XL  bus
	      mouse) and jbm (J-mouse).

	      Creates  mouse  devices  for  the  m68k architecture, including: amigamouse, amiga-
	      mouse1, atarimouse and adbmouse.

       input  On powerpc, this keyword creates the input folder which groups input devices  mice,
	      mouse{0..3},  event{0..3},  and  js{0..3}  (joystick),  and  creates  these devices

       js     Joystick.  Creates js0 and js1.

       djs    Digital joystick. Creates djs0 and djs1.

       usb    USB is a general purpose I/O bus which can serve many  purposes.	The  usb  keyword
	      creates  a usb folder, and devices in the folder: lp{0..15} (printer), mouse{0..15}
	      (USB connected mice), ez{0..15} (firmware loaders) scanner{0..15}  (scanner  inter-
	      faces),  ttyACM{0..15}  and ttyUSB{0..15} (dialout devices), and rio500 the Diamond
	      Rio 500 device.

	      Floppy disk devices.  The device fdx is the device which	autodetects  the  format,
	      and  the additional devices are fixed format (whose size is indicated in the name).
	      The other devices are named as fdx{dqhu}n.  The single letter (d, q, hor u)  signi-
	      fies  the  type  of  drive: 5.25" Double Density (d), 5.25" Quad Density (q), 5.25"
	      High Density (h) or 3.5" (any model, u). The number n represents	the  capacity  of
	      that  format  in	K.   Thus  the	standard  formats  are fdxd360, fdxh1200, fdx720,
	      fdx1440, and fdx2880.

	      For more information see Alain Knaff's fdutils package.

	      Devices fd0* through fd3* are floppy disks on the  first	controller,  and  devices
	      fd4* through fd7* are floppy disks on the second controller.

	      Creates  just  the  autodetecting floppy device specified, without the fixed format

	      AT (ide) hard disks.  The device hdx provides access to the whole  disk,	with  the
	      partitions  being  hdx{1..63}.   For  i386,  the	four  primary partitions are hdx1
	      through hdx4, with the logical partitions being numbered from  hdx5  though  hdx20.
	      (A primary partition can be made into an extended partition, which can hold 4 logi-
	      cal partitions). Other architectures may not  differentiate  partition  types.   By
	      default,	devices  for 20 logical partitions are made. The kernel supports up to 63
	      partitions per device.

	      Drives hda and hdb are the two on the primary controller hdc and hdd  are  the  two
	      drives  on  the secondary controller.  These devices can also be used to access IDE
	      CDROMs. Additional devices hd{e..l} can be created.

	      XT hard disks.  Partitions are the same as IDE disks, except only 8 partitions  are

	      SCSI hard disks.	The partitions are similar to the IDE disks, but there is a limit
	      of 11 logical partitions sdx5 through sdx15, to allow there to be 8 SCSI disks on a
	      system (addresses 0 through 7).

	      and  sd{a..d}{a..z} The kernel (and MAKEDEV) can handle up to 128 SCSI disks (up to
	      sddx).  15 partition devices are created for each.

       eda edb
	      MCA ESDI hard disk. Partitions are handled the same as hd.

	      Direct Access Storage Devices for the s390 architecture. Currently only one  device
	      partition is created (for example, dasda1).

	      ACSI disk (68k/Atari). 15 partitions are created for each.

	      Mylex  DAC960  PCI RAID controller. For this device, an rd directory is created. 32
	      logical devices cxd{0..31} are created for each unit x specified, each with 7  par-
	      titions cxd{0..31}p{1..7}.  The dac960 keyword will create all 7 units at once.

       dpti   Adaptec  I2O  RAID  and DPT SmartRAID V I2O controllers. Creates 7 devices for han-
	      dling up to 7 controllers.

	      Obsolete, device not in current devices.txt. For this device, an ataraid	directory
	      is created.  dx is created for each unit x specified, and 15 partitions dxp{1..15}.
	      The ataraid keyword will create all 7 units at once.

	      I2O based harddisk drives. Device nodes are located in the i2o directory. The file-
	      name is followed by a number that specifies the partition on each disk. The numbers
	      are handled the same as hd.

	      Compaq Intelligent Drive Array. For this device, an ida directory  is  created.  16
	      logical devices cxd{0..15} are created for each unit x specified, each with 15 par-
	      titions cxd{0..15}p{1..15}.  The ida keyword will create the first three units.

	      Compaq Next Generation Drive Array. For this device, a cciss directory is  created.
	      16  logical  devices cxd{0..15} are created for each unit x specified, each with 15
	      partitions cxd{0..15}p{1..15}.  The cciss  keyword  will	create	the  first  three

       md     Creates Metadisk (RAID) disk array with 16 devices.

	      SCSI  tape devices.  This creates the rewinding tape device stx and the non-rewind-
	      ing tape device nstx, for each of modes 0 through 3.

       qic    QIC-11, -24, -120, and -150  tapes.   The  devices  created  are	ntpqic11  tpqic11
	      ntpqic24 tpqic24 ntpqic120 tpqic120 ntpqic150 and tpqic150 tape devices, along with
	      rmt8, rmt16, tape-d, and tape-reset.

	      Floppy driver tapes (QIC-117).  There are 4 methods  of  access  depending  on  the
	      floppy  tape  drive.   For  each	of access methods 0, 1, 2 and 3, the devices qftx
	      zqftx and rawqftx (rewinding) and nqftx nzqftx nrawqdtx  (non-rewinding)	are  cre-
	      ated.   For  compatibility, devices ftape and nftape are symlinks to qft0 and nqft0

       ht0    Creates IDE tape devices ht0 and nht0.

	      Creates parallel port ATAPI tape devices pt{0..3} and npt{0..3}.

       sr or scd or scd-all
	      Creates scd{0..16} SCSI CD players and sr{0..16} symlinks for these devices.  cdrom
	      is  a  symlink which can be created by the user to the active CD device.	It is not
	      created by MAKEDEV.

	      Provides packet writing devices pktcdvd{0..3} for CD/DVD.

	      Parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM devices

       sonycd Sony CDU-31a CD-ROM

       mcd    Mitsumi CD-ROM

       mcdx   Obsolete, device not in current devices.txt.

       cdu535 Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM

       lmscd  Philips LMS CM-205 CD-ROM. The newer name for this device  is  cm205,  but  MAKEDEV
	      creates only lmscd at this time.

	      Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM

       bpcd   MicroSolutions BackPack parallel port CD-ROM (Obsolete - use pcd)

	      Matsushita  (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM. Units {0..3} are created with the key-
	      word sbpcd.

       aztcd  Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes CD-ROM

       gscd   GoldStar CD-ROM

       optcd  Optics Storage CD-ROM

       sjcd   Sanyo CD-ROM

       hitcd  Hitachi CD-ROM

	      Logitech ScanMan32 & ScanMan 256.

	      Mustek M105 Handscanner.

       ac4096 A4Tek Color Handscanner.

       audio  This creates the audio devices used by  the  sound  driver.   These  include  mixer
	      mixer{1..3}  (Mixer  controls), sequencer (Audio sequencer), dsp dsp{1..3} (Digital
	      audio), sndstat (Sound card status  information),  audioctl  (SPARC  audio  control
	      device)  and  audio  audio{1..3}	(Sun-compatible  digital audio). MIDI devices are
	      midi00 through midi03, midi{0..3}, rmidi{0..3}, smpte{0..3}.  In addition,  devices
	      mpu401data and mpu401stat are created.

	      Devices for the PC Speaker sound driver.	These are pcmixer, pxsp, and pcaudio.

       fb     Creates framebuffer devices fb{0..7}, fb{0..7}current, fb{0..7}autodetect.

	      If  the  framebuffer number x is specifed, a group of fbxuser{0..7} devices is cre-

       3dfx   is the 3Dfx Voodoo Graphics device.

	      AGP Graphics Address Remapping Table

       video video4linux v4l radio
	      Each of these keywords produces the  same  result:  Video  capture/overlay  devices
	      video{0..63}, Radio devices radio{0..63}, Teletext devices vtx{0..31}, and Vertical
	      blank interrupt devices vbi{0..31}.   In	addition,  the	winradio0  and	winradio1
	      devices, and vtx and vttuner devices, and symlinks radio video and vbi are created.

       srnd   miroMEDIA Surround board devices srnd0 and srnd1.

       fgrab  Matrox Meteor frame grabber {2.6}. Creates mmetfgrab, wvisfgrab, iscc0, iscc1, isc-
	      cctl0, isccctl1, dcxx0, and dcxx1.

       sg or sg-all
	      Generic SCSI devices.  The devices created  are  sg0  through  sg16.   These  allow
	      arbitary	commands  to  be sent to any SCSI device, to query information or control
	      SCSI devices that are not disk, tape or CDROM (for example,  scanner  or	writeable

       fd     To  allow an arbitary program to be fed input from file descriptor x, use /dev/fd/x
	      as the file name.  This also  creates  /dev/stdin,  /dev/stdout,	and  /dev/stderr.
	      (Note, these are just symlinks into /proc/self/fd).

       ibcs2  Devices socksys spx (and symlinks nfsd XOR) needed by the IBCS2 emulation.

       apm    apm_bios Advanced Power Management BIOS device.

       dcf    Driver for DCF-77 radio clock.

	      Kernel modules demonstration device.  See the modules source.

       xfs or arla
	      Arla XFS network file system.

       capi   CAPI 2.0 interface ports capi20{01..20}.

       ubd    User-mode block devices ubd{0..255}.

	      Network block devices.

       raw    Creates  the  raw  block	device	interface  raw	device,  the  rawctl symlink, and

	      IEEE 1394 (Firewire).

       misc   This keyword creates all the following devices. You may find  the  device  explana-
	      tions  in  other	categories  in	this  man  page,  many under OTHER DEVICES below.
	      logibm, psaux, inportbm, atibm, jbm, amigamouse, atarimouse, sunmouse, amigamouse1,
	      smouse,  pc110pad,  adbmouse,  beep, modreq, watchdog, temperature, hwtrap, exttrp,
	      apm_bios, rtc, openprom, relay8, relay16, msr, pciconf, nvram, hfmodem, led, merge-
	      mem, pmu.

       Network Devices
	      Linux  used to have devices in /dev for controlling network devices, but that is no
	      longer the case.	To see what network devices are known  by  the	kernel,  look  at

       Many of these devices are architecture-specific.

       scc    Z8530 HDLC driver (HAM radio)

       bc     Baycom radio modem (HAM radio)

       cfs0 or cfs or coda
	      Coda network file system

	      Sun mouse

       smouse Simple serial mouse driver

	      IBM PC-110 digitizer pad

	      Vr41xx embedded touch panel

	      Connectix Virtual PC Mouse

       beep   Fancy beep device

       modreq Kernel module load request {2.6}

	      Watchdog timer port

	      Machine internal temperature

       hwtrap Hardware fault trap

       exttrp External device trap

       rtc    Real Time Clock

       efirtc Real Time Clock

	      SPARC OpenBoot PROM

       relay8 Berkshire Products Octal relay card

	      Berkshire Products ISO-16 relay card

       msr    x86 model-specific registers {2.6}

	      PCI configuration space

       nvram  Non-volatile configuration RAM

	      Soundcard shortwave modem control {2.6}

	      Linux/SGI graphics device

       opengl Linux/SGI OpenGL pipe

       gfx    Linux/SGI graphics effects device

       lcd    Front panel LCD display

       led    Front panel LEDs

	      Memory merge device

       pmu    Macintosh PowerBook power manager

       isictl MultiTech ISICom serial control

       ac     Applicom Intl Profibus card

	      Netwinder external button

	      Netwinder debug interface

	      Netwinder flash memory

	      User-space DMA access

       smbus  System Management Bus

       lik    Logitech Internet Keyboard

       ipmo   Intel Intelligent Platform Management

       vmmon  VMWare virtual machine monitor

       tcldrv Technology Concepts serial control

	      Specialix serial control

	      Specialix RIO serial control

       smapi or thinkpad
	      IBM Thinkpad smapi device, and a symlink thinkpad.

       srripc QNX4 API IPC manager

	      Semaphore clone device

       ipmi or ipmikcs
	      Intelligent Platform Management

       uctrl  SPARCbook 3 microcontroller

       gtrsc  Gorgy Timing radio clock

       cbm    Serial CBM bus

	      JavaStation OS flash SIMM

       xsvc   High-speed shared-mem/semaphore service

	      Vr41xx button input device

	      Toshiba laptop SMM support

	      Performance-monitoring counters

	      Intel i8x0 random number generator

	      Atomic shapshot of process state data

       irnet  IrNET device

	      SMBus BIOS

	      User space serial port control

       crash  Mission Critical Linux crash dump facility

	      NAS xbus LCD/buttons access

       d7s    SPARC 7-segment display

       zkshim Zero-Knowledge network shim control

       sexec  Signed executable interface

       kchuid Inter-process chuid control

       mptctl Message passing technology (MPT) control

	      Transmeta GULP-B buttons

	      Compaq PCI Hot Plug Controller

	      Compaq Remote InsightDriver

	      Elographics touchscreen E271-2201

	      Fujitsu/Siemens application panel

	      I2O configuration manager

	      IMPI coprocessor block transfer

	      IMPI coprocessor stream interface

	      Linux/SGI Irix emulation mouse

	      Linux/SGI Irix emulation keyboard

	      MWave modem firmware upload

	      Montavista PICMG hot swap system driver

	      Montavista PICMG high availability

	      TAP/TUN network device

	      National Instruments Motion

	      :CueCat barcode scanner

	      UCB 1x00 touchscreen

	      MK712 touchscreen

	      EM8300 DVD decoder control

	      EM8300 DVD decoder video

	      EM8300 DVD decoder audio

	      EM8300 DVD decoder subpicture

	      Watchdog devices 0 through 3

       Linux  Allocated  Devices,  maintained  by  H. Peter  Anvin,  <Peter.Anvin@linux.org>, and
       devices.txt in the Linux kernel source.

       Nick Holloway, rewritten and updated by Chris Tillman

Linux					   May 17 2002				       MAKEDEV(8)
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