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APTITUDE(8)			      Command-line reference			      APTITUDE(8)

NAME
       aptitude - high-level interface to the package manager

SYNOPSIS
       aptitude [<options>...] {autoclean | clean | forget-new | keep-all | update}

       aptitude [<options>...] {full-upgrade | safe-upgrade} [<packages>...]

       aptitude [<options>...] {build-dep | build-depends | changelog | download | forbid-version
		| hold | install | markauto | purge | reinstall | remove | show | unhold |
		unmarkauto | versions} <packages>...

       aptitude extract-cache-subset <output-directory> <packages>...

       aptitude [<options>...] search <patterns>...

       aptitude [<options>...] {add-user-tag | remove-user-tag} <tag> <packages>...

       aptitude [<options>...] {why | why-not} [<patterns>...] <package>

       aptitude [-S <fname>] [--autoclean-on-startup | --clean-on-startup | -i | -u]

       aptitude help

DESCRIPTION
       aptitude is a text-based interface to the Debian GNU/Linux package system.

       It allows the user to view the list of packages and to perform package management tasks
       such as installing, upgrading, and removing packages. Actions may be performed from a
       visual interface or from the command-line.

COMMAND-LINE ACTIONS
       The first argument which does not begin with a hyphen ("-") is considered to be an action
       that the program should perform. If an action is not specified on the command-line,
       aptitude will start up in visual mode.

       The following actions are available:

       install
	   Install one or more packages. The packages should be listed after the "install"
	   command; if a package name contains a tilde character ("~") or a question mark ("?"),
	   it will be treated as a search pattern and every package matching the pattern will be
	   installed (see the section "Search Patterns" in the aptitude reference manual).

	   To select a particular version of the package, append "=<version>" to the package
	   name: for instance, "aptitude install apt=0.3.1". Similarly, to select a package from
	   a particular archive, append "/<archive>" to the package name: for instance, "aptitude
	   install apt/experimental".

	   Not every package listed on the command line has to be installed; you can tell
	   aptitude to do something different with a package by appending an "override specifier"
	   to the name of the package. For example, aptitude remove wesnoth+ will install
	   wesnoth, not remove it. The following override specifiers are available:

	   <package>+
	       Install <package>.

	   <package>+M
	       Install <package> and immediately mark it as automatically installed (note that if
	       nothing depends on <package>, this will cause it to be immediately removed).

	   <package>-
	       Remove <package>.

	   <package>_
	       Purge <package>: remove it and all its associated configuration and data files.

	   <package>=
	       Place <package> on hold: cancel any active installation, upgrade, or removal, and
	       prevent this package from being automatically upgraded in the future.

	   <package>:
	       Keep <package> at its current version: cancel any installation, removal, or
	       upgrade. Unlike "hold" (above) this does not prevent automatic upgrades in the
	       future.

	   <package>&M
	       Mark <package> as having been automatically installed.

	   <package>&m
	       Mark <package> as having been manually installed.

	   As a special case, "install" with no arguments will act on any stored/pending actions.

	       Note
	       Once you enter Y at the final confirmation prompt, the "install" command will
	       modify aptitude's stored information about what actions to perform. Therefore, if
	       you issue (e.g.) the command "aptitude install foo bar" and then abort the
	       installation once aptitude has started downloading and installing packages, you
	       will need to run "aptitude remove foo bar" to cancel that order.

       remove, purge, hold, unhold, keep, reinstall
	   These commands are the same as "install", but apply the named action to all packages
	   given on the command line for which it is not overridden. The difference between hold
	   and keep is that hold will cause a package to be ignored by future safe-upgrade or
	   full-upgrade commands, while keep merely cancels any scheduled actions on the package.
	   unhold will allow a package to be upgraded by future safe-upgrade or full-upgrade
	   commands, without otherwise altering its state.

	   For instance, "aptitude remove '~ndeity'" will remove all packages whose name contains
	   "deity".

       markauto, unmarkauto
	   Mark packages as automatically installed or manually installed, respectively. Packages
	   are specified in exactly the same way as for the "install" command. For instance,
	   "aptitude markauto '~slibs'" will mark all packages in the "libs" section as having
	   been automatically installed.

	   For more information on automatically installed packages, see the section "Managing
	   Automatically Installed Packages" in the aptitude reference manual.

       build-depends, build-dep
	   Satisfy the build-dependencies of a package. Each package name may be a source
	   package, in which case the build dependencies of that source package are installed;
	   otherwise, binary packages are found in the same way as for the "install" command, and
	   the build-dependencies of the source packages that build those binary packages are
	   satisfied.

	   If the command-line parameter --arch-only is present, only architecture-dependent
	   build dependencies (i.e., not Build-Depends-Indep or Build-Conflicts-Indep) will be
	   obeyed.

       forbid-version
	   Forbid a package from being upgraded to a particular version. This will prevent
	   aptitude from automatically upgrading to this version, but will allow automatic
	   upgrades to future versions. By default, aptitude will select the version to which the
	   package would normally be upgraded; you may override this selection by appending
	   "=<version>" to the package name: for instance, "aptitude forbid-version
	   vim=1.2.3.broken-4".

	   This command is useful for avoiding broken versions of packages without having to set
	   and clear manual holds. If you decide you really want the forbidden version after all,
	   the "install" command will remove the ban.

       update
	   Updates the list of available packages from the apt sources (this is equivalent to
	   "apt-get update")

       safe-upgrade
	   Upgrades installed packages to their most recent version. Installed packages will not
	   be removed unless they are unused (see the section "Managing Automatically Installed
	   Packages" in the aptitude reference manual). Packages which are not currently
	   installed may be installed to resolve dependencies unless the --no-new-installs
	   command-line option is supplied.

	   If no <package>s are listed on the command line, aptitude will attempt to upgrade
	   every package that can be upgraded. Otherwise, aptitude will attempt to upgrade only
	   the packages which it is instructed to upgrade. The <package>s can be extended with
	   suffixes in the same manner as arguments to aptitude install, so you can also give
	   additional instructions to aptitude here; for instance, aptitude safe-upgrade bash
	   dash- will attempt to upgrade the bash package and remove the dash package.

	   It is sometimes necessary to remove one package in order to upgrade another; this
	   command is not able to upgrade packages in such situations. Use the full-upgrade
	   command to upgrade as many packages as possible.

       full-upgrade
	   Upgrades installed packages to their most recent version, removing or installing
	   packages as necessary. This command is less conservative than safe-upgrade and thus
	   more likely to perform unwanted actions. However, it is capable of upgrading packages
	   that safe-upgrade cannot upgrade.

	   If no <package>s are listed on the command line, aptitude will attempt to upgrade
	   every package that can be upgraded. Otherwise, aptitude will attempt to upgrade only
	   the packages which it is instructed to upgrade. The <package>s can be extended with
	   suffixes in the same manner as arguments to aptitude install, so you can also give
	   additional instructions to aptitude here; for instance, aptitude full-upgrade bash
	   dash- will attempt to upgrade the bash package and remove the dash package.

	       Note
	       This command was originally named dist-upgrade for historical reasons, and
	       aptitude still recognizes dist-upgrade as a synonym for full-upgrade.

       keep-all
	   Cancels all scheduled actions on all packages; any packages whose sticky state
	   indicates an installation, removal, or upgrade will have this sticky state cleared.

       forget-new
	   Forgets all internal information about what packages are "new" (equivalent to pressing
	   "f" when in visual mode).

       search
	   Searches for packages matching one of the patterns supplied on the command line. All
	   packages which match any of the given patterns will be displayed; for instance,
	   "aptitude search '~N' edit" will list all "new" packages and all packages whose name
	   contains "edit". For more information on search patterns, see the section "Search
	   Patterns" in the aptitude reference manual.

	       Note
	       In the example above, "aptitude search '~N' edit" has two arguments after search
	       and thus is searching for two patterns: "~N" and "edit". As described in the
	       search pattern reference, a single pattern composed of two sub-patterns separated
	       by a space (such as "~N edit") matches only if both patterns match. Thus, the
	       command "aptitude search '~N edit'" will only show "new" packages whose name
	       contains "edit".
	   Unless you pass the -F option, the output of aptitude search will look something like
	   this:

	       i   apt				   - Advanced front-end for dpkg
	       pi  apt-build			   - frontend to apt to build, optimize and in
	       cp  apt-file			   - APT package searching utility -- command-
	       ihA raptor-utils 		   - Raptor RDF Parser utilities

	   Each search result is listed on a separate line. The first character of each line
	   indicates the current state of the package: the most common states are p, meaning that
	   no trace of the package exists on the system, c, meaning that the package was deleted
	   but its configuration files remain on the system, i, meaning that the package is
	   installed, and v, meaning that the package is virtual. The second character indicates
	   the stored action (if any; otherwise a blank space is displayed) to be performed on
	   the package, with the most common actions being i, meaning that the package will be
	   installed, d, meaning that the package will be deleted, and p, meaning that the
	   package and its configuration files will be removed. If the third character is A, the
	   package was automatically installed.

	   For a complete list of the possible state and action flags, see the section "Accessing
	   Package Information" in the aptitude reference guide. To customize the output of
	   search, see the command-line options -F and --sort.

       show
	   Displays detailed information about one or more packages, listed following the search
	   command. If a package name contains a tilde character ("~") or a question mark ("?"),
	   it will be treated as a search pattern and all matching packages will be displayed
	   (see the section "Search Patterns" in the aptitude reference manual).

	   If the verbosity level is 1 or greater (i.e., at least one -v is present on the
	   command-line), information about all versions of the package is displayed. Otherwise,
	   information about the "candidate version" (the version that "aptitude install" would
	   download) is displayed.

	   You can display information about a different version of the package by appending
	   =<version> to the package name; you can display the version from a particular archive
	   or release by appending /<archive> or /<release> to the package name: for instance,
	   /unstable or /sid. If either of these is present, then only the version you request
	   will be displayed, regardless of the verbosity level.

	   If the verbosity level is 1 or greater, the package's architecture, compressed size,
	   filename, and md5sum fields will be displayed. If the verbosity level is 2 or greater,
	   the select version or versions will be displayed once for each archive in which they
	   are found.

       versions
	   Displays the versions of the packages listed on the command-line.

	       $ aptitude versions wesnoth
	       p   1:1.4.5-1								 100
	       p   1:1.6.5-1					unstable		 500
	       p   1:1.7.14-1					experimental		 1

	   Each version is listed on a separate line. The leftmost three characters indicate the
	   current state, planned state (if any), and whether the package was automatically
	   installed; for more information on their meanings, see the documentation of aptitude
	   search. To the right of the version number you can find the releases from which the
	   version is available, and the pin priority of the version.

	   If a package name contains a tilde character ("~") or a question mark ("?"), it will
	   be treated as a search pattern and all matching versions will be displayed (see the
	   section "Search Patterns" in the aptitude reference manual). This means that, for
	   instance, aptitude versions '~i' will display all the versions that are currently
	   installed on the system and nothing else, not even other versions of the same
	   packages.

	       $ aptitude versions '~nexim4-daemon-light'
	       Package exim4-daemon-light:
	       i   4.71-3								 100
	       p   4.71-4					unstable		 500

	       Package exim4-daemon-light-dbg:
	       p   4.71-4					unstable		 500

	   If the input is a search pattern, or if more than one package's versions are to be
	   displayed, aptitude will automatically group the output by package, as shown above.
	   You can disable this via --group-by=none, in which case aptitude will display a single
	   list of all the versions that were found and automatically include the package name in
	   each output line:

	       $ aptitude versions --group-by=none '~nexim4-daemon-light'
	       i   exim4-daemon-light 4.71-3						 100
	       p   exim4-daemon-light 4.71-4			unstable		 500
	       p   exim4-daemon-light-dbg 4.71-4		unstable		 500

	   To disable the package name, pass --show-package-names=never:

	       $ aptitude versions --show-package-names=never --group-by=none '~nexim4-daemon-light'
	       i   4.71-3								 100
	       p   4.71-4					unstable		 500
	       p   4.71-4					unstable		 500

	   In addition to the above options, the information printed for each version can be
	   controlled by the command-line option -F. The order in which versions are displayed
	   can be controlled by the command-line option --sort. To prevent aptitude from
	   formatting the output into columns, use --disable-columns.

       add-user-tag, remove-user-tag
	   Adds a user tag to or removes a user tag from the selected group of packages. If a
	   package name contains a tilde ("~") or question mark ("?"), it is treated as a search
	   pattern and the tag is added to or removed from all the packages that match the
	   pattern (see the section "Search Patterns" in the aptitude reference manual).

	   User tags are arbitrary strings associated with a package. They can be used with the
	   ?user-tag(<tag>) search term, which will select all the packages that have a user tag
	   matching <tag>.

       why, why-not
	   Explains the reason that a particular package should or cannot be installed on the
	   system.

	   This command searches for packages that require or conflict with the given package. It
	   displays a sequence of dependencies leading to the target package, along with a note
	   indicating the installed state of each package in the dependency chain:

	       $ aptitude why kdepim
	       i   nautilus-data Recommends nautilus
	       i A nautilus	 Recommends desktop-base (>= 0.2)
	       i A desktop-base  Suggests   gnome | kde | xfce4 | wmaker
	       p   kde		 Depends    kdepim (>= 4:3.4.3)

	   The command why finds a dependency chain that installs the package named on the
	   command line, as above. Note that the dependency that aptitude produced in this case
	   is only a suggestion. This is because no package currently installed on this computer
	   depends on or recommends the kdepim package; if a stronger dependency were available,
	   aptitude would have displayed it.

	   In contrast, why-not finds a dependency chain leading to a conflict with the target
	   package:

	       $ aptitude why-not textopo
	       i   ocaml-core	       Depends	 ocamlweb
	       i A ocamlweb	       Depends	 tetex-extra | texlive-latex-extra
	       i A texlive-latex-extra Conflicts textopo

	   If one or more <pattern>s are present, then aptitude will begin its search at these
	   patterns; that is, the first package in the chain it prints will be a package matching
	   the pattern in question. The patterns are considered to be package names unless they
	   contain a tilde character ("~") or a question mark ("?"), in which case they are
	   treated as search patterns (see the section "Search Patterns" in the aptitude
	   reference manual).

	   If no patterns are present, then aptitude will search for dependency chains beginning
	   at manually installed packages. This effectively shows the packages that have caused
	   or would cause a given package to be installed.

	       Note
	       aptitude why does not perform full dependency resolution; it only displays direct
	       relationships between packages. For instance, if A requires B, C requires D, and B
	       and C conflict, "aptitude why-not D" will not produce the answer "A depends on B,
	       B conflicts with C, and D depends on C".
	   By default aptitude outputs only the "most installed, strongest, tightest, shortest"
	   dependency chain. That is, it looks for a chain that only contains packages which are
	   installed or will be installed; it looks for the strongest possible dependencies under
	   that restriction; it looks for chains that avoid ORed dependencies and Provides; and
	   it looks for the shortest dependency chain meeting those criteria. These rules are
	   progressively weakened until a match is found.

	   If the verbosity level is 1 or more, then all the explanations aptitude can find will
	   be displayed, in inverse order of relevance. If the verbosity level is 2 or more, a
	   truly excessive amount of debugging information will be printed to standard output.

	   This command returns 0 if successful, 1 if no explanation could be constructed, and -1
	   if an error occured.

       clean
	   Removes all previously downloaded .deb files from the package cache directory (usually
	   /var/cache/apt/archives).

       autoclean
	   Removes any cached packages which can no longer be downloaded. This allows you to
	   prevent a cache from growing out of control over time without completely emptying it.

       changelog
	   Downloads and displays the Debian changelog for each of the given source or binary
	   packages.

	   By default, the changelog for the version which would be installed with "aptitude
	   install" is downloaded. You can select a particular version of a package by appending
	   =<version> to the package name; you can select the version from a particular archive
	   or release by appending /<archive> or /<release> to the package name (for instance,
	   /unstable or /sid).

       download
	   Downloads the .deb file for the given package to the current directory. If a package
	   name contains a tilde character ("~") or a question mark ("?"), it will be treated as
	   a search pattern and all the matching packages will be downloaded (see the section
	   "Search Patterns" in the aptitude reference manual).

	   By default, the version which would be installed with "aptitude install" is
	   downloaded. You can select a particular version of a package by appending =<version>
	   to the package name; you can select the version from a particular archive or release
	   by appending /<archive> or /<release> to the package name (for instance: /unstable or
	   /sid).

       extract-cache-subset
	   Copy the apt configuration directory (/etc/apt) and a subset of the package database
	   to the specified directory. If no packages are listed, the entire package database is
	   copied; otherwise only the entries corresponding to the named packages are copied.
	   Each package name may be a search pattern, and all the packages matching that pattern
	   will be selected (see the section "Search Patterns" in the aptitude reference manual).
	   Any existing package database files in the output directory will be overwritten.

	   Dependencies in binary package stanzas will be rewritten to remove references to
	   packages not in the selected set.

       help
	   Displays a brief summary of the available commands and options.

OPTIONS
       The following options may be used to modify the behavior of the actions described above.
       Note that while all options will be accepted for all commands, some options don't apply to
       particular commands and will be ignored by those commands.

       --add-user-tag <tag>
	   For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade, forbid-version, hold, install, keep-all, markauto,
	   unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold, and unmarkauto: add the user tag <tag>
	   to all packages that are installed, removed, or upgraded by this command as if with
	   the add-user-tag command.

       --add-user-tag-to <tag>,<pattern>
	   For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install, keep-all, markauto,
	   unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold, and unmarkauto: add the user tag <tag>
	   to all packages that match <pattern> as if with the add-user-tag command. The pattern
	   is a search pattern as described in the section "Search Patterns" in the aptitude
	   reference manual.

	   For instance, aptitude safe-upgrade --add-user-tag-to "new-installs,?action(install)"
	   will add the tag new-installs to all the packages installed by the safe-upgrade
	   command.

       --allow-new-upgrades
	   When the safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed or
	   Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), allow the dependency resolver to
	   install upgrades for packages regardless of the value of
	   Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Upgrades.

       --allow-new-installs
	   Allow the safe-upgrade command to install new packages; when the safe resolver is
	   being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed or Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is
	   set to true), allow the dependency resolver to install new packages. This option takes
	   effect regardless of the value of Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Installs.

       --allow-untrusted
	   Install packages from untrusted sources without prompting. You should only use this if
	   you know what you are doing, as it could easily compromise your system's security.

       --disable-columns
	   This option causes aptitude search and aptitude version to output their results
	   without any special formatting. In particular: normally aptitude will add whitespace
	   or truncate search results in an attempt to fit its results into vertical "columns".
	   With this flag, each line will be formed by replacing any format escapes in the format
	   string with the correponding text; column widths will be ignored.

	   For instance, the first few lines of output from "aptitude search -F '%p %V'
	   --disable-columns libedataserver" might be:

	       disksearch 1.2.1-3
	       hp-search-mac 0.1.3
	       libbsearch-ruby 1.5-5
	       libbsearch-ruby1.8 1.5-5
	       libclass-dbi-abstractsearch-perl 0.07-2
	       libdbix-fulltextsearch-perl 0.73-10

	   As in the above example, --disable-columns is often useful in combination with a
	   custom display format set using the command-line option -F.

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Disable-Columns.

       -D, --show-deps
	   For commands that will install or remove packages (install, full-upgrade, etc), show
	   brief explanations of automatic installations and removals.

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Deps.

       -d, --download-only
	   Download packages to the package cache as necessary, but do not install or remove
	   anything. By default, the package cache is stored in /var/cache/apt/archives.

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Download-Only.

       -F <format>, --display-format <format>
	   Specify the format which should be used to display output from the search and version
	   commands. For instance, passing "%p %V %v" for <format> will display a package's name,
	   followed by its currently installed version and its available version (see the section
	   "Customizing how packages are displayed" in the aptitude reference manual for more
	   information).

	   The command-line option --disable-columns is often useful in combination with -F.

	   For search, this corresponds to the configuration option
	   Aptitude::CmdLine::Package-Display-Format; for versions, this corresponds to the
	   configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Version-Display-Format.

       -f
	   Try hard to fix the dependencies of broken packages, even if it means ignoring the
	   actions requested on the command line.

	   This corresponds to the configuration item Aptitude::CmdLine::Fix-Broken.

       --full-resolver
	   When package dependency problems are encountered, use the default "full" resolver to
	   solve them. Unlike the "safe" resolver activated by --safe-resolver, the full resolver
	   will happily remove packages to fulfill dependencies. It can resolve more situations
	   than the safe algorithm, but its solutions are more likely to be undesirable.

	   This option can be used to force the use of the full resolver even when
	   Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is true. The safe-upgrade command never uses the
	   full resolver and does not accept the --full-resolver option.

       --group-by <grouping-mode>
	   Control how the versions command groups its output. The following values are
	   recognized:

	   o	archive to group packages by the archive they occur in ("stable", "unstable",
	       etc). If a package occurs in several archives, it will be displayed in each of
	       them.

	   o	auto to group versions by their package unless there is exactly one argument and
	       it is not a search pattern.

	   o	none to display all the versions in a single list without any grouping.

	   o	package to group versions by their package.

	   o	source-package to group versions by their source package.

	   o	source-version to group versions by their source package and source version.

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Versions-Group-By.

       -h, --help
	   Display a brief help message. Identical to the help action.

       --log-file=<file>
	   If <file> is a nonempty string, log messages will be written to it, except that if
	   <file> is "-", the messages will be written to standard output instead. If this option
	   appears multiple times, the last occurrence is the one that will take effect.

	   This does not affect the log of installations that aptitude has performed
	   (/var/log/aptitude); the log messages written using this configuration include
	   internal program events, errors, and debugging messages. See the command-line option
	   --log-level to get more control over what gets logged.

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::Logging::File.

       --log-level=<level>, --log-level=<category>:<level>

	   --log-level=<level> causes aptitude to only log messages whose level is <level> or
	   higher. For instance, setting the log level to error will cause only messages at the
	   log levels error and fatal to be displayed; all others will be hidden. Valid log
	   levels (in descending order) are off, fatal, error, warn, info, debug, and trace. The
	   default log level is warn.

	   --log-level=<category>:<level> causes messages in <category> to only be logged if
	   their level is <level> or higher.

	   --log-level may appear multiple times on the command line; the most specific setting
	   is the one that takes effect, so if you pass --log-level=aptitude.resolver:fatal and
	   --log-level=aptitude.resolver.hints.match:trace, then messages in
	   aptitude.resolver.hints.parse will only be printed if their level is fatal, but all
	   messages in aptitude.resolver.hints.match will be printed. If you set the level of the
	   same category two or more times, the last setting is the one that will take effect.

	   This does not affect the log of installations that aptitude has performed
	   (/var/log/aptitude); the log messages written using this configuration include
	   internal program events, errors, and debugging messages. See the command-line option
	   --log-file to change where log messages go.

	   This corresponds to the configuration group Aptitude::Logging::Levels.

       --log-resolver
	   Set some standard log levels related to the resolver, to produce logging output
	   suitable for processing with automated tools. This is equivalent to the command-line
	   options --log-level=aptitude.resolver.search:trace
	   --log-level=aptitude.resolver.search.tiers:info.

       --no-new-installs
	   Prevent safe-upgrade from installing any new packages; when the safe resolver is being
	   used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed or Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to
	   true), forbid the dependency resolver from installing new packages. This option takes
	   effect regardless of the value of Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Installs.

	   This mimics the historical behavior of apt-get upgrade.

	   This corresponds to the configuration option
	   Aptitude::CmdLine::Safe-Upgrade::No-New-Installs.

       --no-new-upgrades
	   When the safe resolver is being used (i.e., --safe-resolver was passed or
	   Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver is set to true), allow the dependency resolver to
	   install new packages regardless of the value of
	   Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::No-New-Installs.

       --no-show-resolver-actions
	   Do not display the actions performed by the "safe" resolver, overriding any
	   configuration option or earlier --show-resolver-actions.

       -O <order>, --sort <order>
	   Specify the order in which output from the search and versions commands should be
	   displayed. For instance, passing "installsize" for <order> will list packages in order
	   according to their size when installed (see the section "Customizing how packages are
	   sorted" in the aptitude reference manual for more information).

	   The default sort order is name,version.

       -o <key>=<value>
	   Set a configuration file option directly; for instance, use -o
	   Aptitude::Log=/tmp/my-log to log aptitude's actions to /tmp/my-log. For more
	   information on configuration file options, see the section "Configuration file
	   reference" in the aptitude reference manual.

       -P, --prompt
	   Always display a prompt before downloading, installing or removing packages, even when
	   no actions other than those explicitly requested will be performed.

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Always-Prompt.

       --purge-unused
	   If Aptitude::Delete-Unused is set to "true" (its default), then in addition to
	   removing each package that is no longer required by any installed package, aptitude
	   will also purge them, removing their configuration files and perhaps other important
	   data. For more information about which packages are considered to be "unused", see the
	   section "Managing Automatically Installed Packages" in the aptitude reference manual.
	   THIS OPTION CAN CAUSE DATA LOSS! DO NOT USE IT UNLESS YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING!

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::Purge-Unused.

       -q[=<n>], --quiet[=<n>]
	   Suppress all incremental progress indicators, thus making the output loggable. This
	   may be supplied multiple times to make the program quieter, but unlike apt-get,
	   aptitude does not enable -y when -q is supplied more than once.

	   The optional =<n> may be used to directly set the amount of quietness (for instance,
	   to override a setting in /etc/apt/apt.conf); it causes the program to behave as if -q
	   had been passed exactly <n> times.

       -R, --without-recommends
	   Do not treat recommendations as dependencies when installing new packages (this
	   overrides settings in /etc/apt/apt.conf and ~/.aptitude/config). Packages previously
	   installed due to recommendations will not be removed.

	   This corresponds to the pair of configuration options Apt::Install-Recommends and
	   Apt::AutoRemove::InstallRecommends.

       -r, --with-recommends
	   Treat recommendations as dependencies when installing new packages (this overrides
	   settings in /etc/apt/apt.conf and ~/.aptitude/config).

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Apt::Install-Recommends

       --remove-user-tag <tag>
	   For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install, keep-all, markauto,
	   unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold, and unmarkauto: remove the user tag
	   <tag> from all packages that are installed, removed, or upgraded by this command as if
	   with the add-user-tag command.

       --remove-user-tag-from <tag>,<pattern>
	   For full-upgrade, safe-upgrade forbid-version, hold, install, keep-all, markauto,
	   unmarkauto, purge, reinstall, remove, unhold, and unmarkauto: remove the user tag
	   <tag> from all packages that match <pattern> as if with the remove-user-tag command.
	   The pattern is a search pattern as described in the section "Search Patterns" in the
	   aptitude reference manual.

	   For instance, aptitude safe-upgrade --remove-user-tag-from
	   "not-upgraded,?action(upgrade)" will remove the not-upgraded tag from all packages
	   that the safe-upgrade command is able to upgrade.

       -s, --simulate
	   In command-line mode, print the actions that would normally be performed, but don't
	   actually perform them. This does not require root privileges. In the visual interface,
	   always open the cache in read-only mode regardless of whether you are root.

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::Simulate.

       --safe-resolver
	   When package dependency problems are encountered, use a "safe" algorithm to solve
	   them. This resolver attempts to preserve as many of your choices as possible; it will
	   never remove a package or install a version of a package other than the package's
	   default candidate version. It is the same algorithm used in safe-upgrade; indeed,
	   aptitude --safe-resolver full-upgrade is equivalent to aptitude safe-upgrade. Because
	   safe-upgrade always uses the safe resolver, it does not accept the --safe-resolver
	   flag.

	   This option is equivalent to setting the configuration variable
	   Aptitude::Always-Use-Safe-Resolver to true.

       --schedule-only
	   For commands that modify package states, schedule operations to be performed in the
	   future, but don't perform them. You can execute scheduled actions by running aptitude
	   install with no arguments. This is equivalent to making the corresponding selections
	   in visual mode, then exiting the program normally.

	   For instance, aptitude --schedule-only install evolution will schedule the evolution
	   package for later installation.

       --show-package-names <when>
	   Controls when the versions command shows package names. The following settings are
	   allowed:

	   o	always: display package names every time that aptitude versions runs.

	   o	auto: display package names when aptitude versions runs if the output is not
	       grouped by package, and either there is a pattern-matching argument or there is
	       more than one argument.

	   o	never: never display package names in the output of aptitude versions.

	   This option corresponds to the configuration item
	   Aptitude::CmdLine::Versions-Show-Package-Names.

       --show-resolver-actions
	   Display the actions performed by the "safe" resolver.

       --show-summary[=<MODE>]
	   Changes the behavior of "aptitude why" to summarize each dependency chain that it
	   outputs, rather than displaying it in long form. If this option is present and <MODE>
	   is not "no-summary", chains that contain Suggests dependencies will not be displayed:
	   combine --show-summary with -v to see a summary of all the reasons for the target
	   package to be installed.

	   <MODE> can be any one of the following:

	    1.	no-summary: don't show a summary (the default behavior if --show-summary is not
	       present).

	    2.	first-package: display the first package in each chain. This is the default value
	       of <MODE> if it is not present.

	    3.	first-package-and-type: display the first package in each chain, along with the
	       strength of the weakest dependency in the chain.

	    4.	all-packages: briefly display each chain of dependencies leading to the target
	       package.

	    5.	all-packages-with-dep-versions: briefly display each chain of dependencies
	       leading to the target package, including the target version of each dependency.

	   This option corresponds to the configuration item Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Summary; if
	   --show-summary is present on the command-line, it will override
	   Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Summary.

	   Example 10. Usage of --show-summary

	   --show-summary used with -v to display all the reasons a package is installed:

	       $ aptitude -v --show-summary why foomatic-db
	       Packages requiring foomatic-db:
		 cupsys-driver-gutenprint
		 foomatic-db-engine
		 foomatic-db-gutenprint
		 foomatic-db-hpijs
		 foomatic-filters-ppds
		 foomatic-gui
		 kde
		 printconf
		 wine

	       $ aptitude -v --show-summary=first-package-and-type why foomatic-db
	       Packages requiring foomatic-db:
		 [Depends] cupsys-driver-gutenprint
		 [Depends] foomatic-db-engine
		 [Depends] foomatic-db-gutenprint
		 [Depends] foomatic-db-hpijs
		 [Depends] foomatic-filters-ppds
		 [Depends] foomatic-gui
		 [Depends] kde
		 [Depends] printconf
		 [Depends] wine

	       $ aptitude -v --show-summary=all-packages why foomatic-db
	       Packages requiring foomatic-db:
		 cupsys-driver-gutenprint D: cups-driver-gutenprint D: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
		 foomatic-filters-ppds D: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
		 kde D: kdeadmin R: system-config-printer-kde D: system-config-printer R: hal-cups-utils D: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
		 wine D: libwine-print D: cups-bsd R: cups R: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
		 foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
		 foomatic-db-gutenprint D: foomatic-db
		 foomatic-db-hpijs D: foomatic-db
		 foomatic-gui D: python-foomatic D: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
		 printconf D: foomatic-db

	       $ aptitude -v --show-summary=all-packages-with-dep-versions why foomatic-db
	       Packages requiring foomatic-db:
		 cupsys-driver-gutenprint D: cups-driver-gutenprint (>= 5.0.2-4) D: cups (>= 1.3.0) R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
		 foomatic-filters-ppds D: foomatic-filters R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
		 kde D: kdeadmin (>= 4:3.5.5) R: system-config-printer-kde (>= 4:4.2.2-1) D: system-config-printer (>= 1.0.0) R: hal-cups-utils D: cups R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
		 wine D: libwine-print (= 1.1.15-1) D: cups-bsd R: cups R: foomatic-filters (>= 4.0) R: foomatic-db-engine (>= 4.0) D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
		 foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db
		 foomatic-db-gutenprint D: foomatic-db
		 foomatic-db-hpijs D: foomatic-db
		 foomatic-gui D: python-foomatic (>= 0.7.9.2) D: foomatic-db-engine D: foomatic-db (>= 20090301)
		 printconf D: foomatic-db

	   --show-summary used to list a chain on one line:

	       $ aptitude --show-summary=all-packages why aptitude-gtk libglib2.0-data
	       Packages requiring libglib2.0-data:
		 aptitude-gtk D: libglib2.0-0 R: libglib2.0-data

       -t <release>, --target-release <release>
	   Set the release from which packages should be installed. For instance, "aptitude -t
	   experimental ..."  will install packages from the experimental distribution unless you
	   specify otherwise. For the command-line actions "changelog", "download", and "show",
	   this is equivalent to appending /<release> to each package named on the command-line;
	   for other commands, this will affect the default candidate version of packages
	   according to the rules described in apt_preferences(5).

	   This corresponds to the configuration item APT::Default-Release.

       -V, --show-versions
	   Show which versions of packages will be installed.

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Versions.

       -v, --verbose
	   Causes some commands (for instance, show) to display extra information. This may be
	   supplied multiple times to get more and more information.

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Verbose.

       --version
	   Display the version of aptitude and some information about how it was compiled.

	   When executing the command safe-upgrade or when the option --safe-resolver is present,
	   aptitude will display a summary of the actions performed by the resolver before
	   printing the installation preview. This is equivalent to the configuration options
	   Aptitude::CmdLine::Safe-Upgrade::Show-Resolver-Actions and
	   Aptitude::Safe-Resolver::Show-Resolver-Actions.

       --visual-preview
	   When installing or removing packages from the command line, instead of displaying the
	   usual prompt, start up the visual interface and display its preview screen.

       -W, --show-why
	   In the preview displayed before packages are installed or removed, show which manually
	   installed package requires each automatically installed package. For instance:

	       $ aptitude --show-why install mediawiki
	       ...
	       The following NEW packages will be installed:
		 libapache2-mod-php5{a} (for mediawiki)  mediawiki  php5{a} (for mediawiki)
		 php5-cli{a} (for mediawiki)  php5-common{a} (for mediawiki)
		 php5-mysql{a} (for mediawiki)

	   When combined with -v or a non-zero value for Aptitude::CmdLine::Verbose, this
	   displays the entire chain of dependencies that lead each package to be installed. For
	   instance:

	       $ aptitude -v --show-why install libdb4.2-dev
	       The following NEW packages will be installed:
		 libdb4.2{a} (libdb4.2-dev D: libdb4.2)  libdb4.2-dev
	       The following packages will be REMOVED:
		 libdb4.4-dev{a} (libdb4.2-dev C: libdb-dev P<- libdb-dev)

	   This option will also describe why packages are being removed, as shown above. In this
	   example, libdb4.2-dev conflicts with libdb-dev, which is provided by libdb-dev.

	   This argument corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Why and
	   displays the same information that is computed by aptitude why and aptitude why-not.

       -w <width>, --width <width>
	   Specify the display width which should be used for output from the search command (by
	   default, the terminal width is used).

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Package-Display-Width

       -y, --assume-yes
	   When a yes/no prompt would be presented, assume that the user entered "yes". In
	   particular, suppresses the prompt that appears when installing, upgrading, or removing
	   packages. Prompts for "dangerous" actions, such as removing essential packages, will
	   still be displayed. This option overrides -P.

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Assume-Yes.

       -Z
	   Show how much disk space will be used or freed by the individual packages being
	   installed, upgraded, or removed.

	   This corresponds to the configuration option Aptitude::CmdLine::Show-Size-Changes.

       The following options apply to the visual mode of the program, but are primarily for
       internal use; you generally won't need to use them yourself.

       --autoclean-on-startup
	   Deletes old downloaded files when the program starts (equivalent to starting the
	   program and immediately selecting Actions -> Clean obsolete files). You cannot use
	   this option and "--autoclean-on-startup", "-i", or "-u" at the same time.

       --clean-on-startup
	   Cleans the package cache when the program starts (equivalent to starting the program
	   and immediately selecting Actions -> Clean package cache). You cannot use this option
	   and "--autoclean-on-startup", "-i", or "-u" at the same time.

       -i
	   Displays a download preview when the program starts (equivalent to starting the
	   program and immediately pressing "g"). You cannot use this option and
	   "--autoclean-on-startup", "--clean-on-startup", or "-u" at the same time.

       -S <fname>
	   Loads the extended state information from <fname> instead of the standard state file.

       -u
	   Begins updating the package lists as soon as the program starts. You cannot use this
	   option and "--autoclean-on-startup", "--clean-on-startup", or "-i" at the same time.

ENVIRONMENT
       HOME
	   If $HOME/.aptitude exists, aptitude will store its configuration file in
	   $HOME/.aptitude/config. Otherwise, it will look up the current user's home directory
	   using getpwuid(2) and place its configuration file there.

       PAGER
	   If this environment variable is set, aptitude will use it to display changelogs when
	   "aptitude changelog" is invoked. If not set, it defaults to more.

       TMP
	   If TMPDIR is unset, aptitude will store its temporary files in TMP if that variable is
	   set. Otherwise, it will store them in /tmp.

       TMPDIR

	   aptitude will store its temporary files in the directory indicated by this environment
	   variable. If TMPDIR is not set, then TMP will be used; if TMP is also unset, then
	   aptitude will use /tmp.

FILES
       /var/lib/aptitude/pkgstates
	   The file in which stored package states and some package flags are stored.

       /etc/apt/apt.conf, /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/*, ~/.aptitude/config
	   The configuration files for aptitude.  ~/.aptitude/config overrides /etc/apt/apt.conf.
	   See apt.conf(5) for documentation of the format and contents of these files.

SEE ALSO
       apt-get(8), apt(8), /usr/share/doc/aptitude/html/<lang>/index.html from the package
       aptitude-doc-<lang>

AUTHOR
       Daniel Burrows <dburrows@debian.org>
	   Author.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright 2004-2010 Daniel Burrows.

       This manual page is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
       terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation;
       either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       This manual page is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
       WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program;
       if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
       Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

aptitude 0.6.4				    08/08/2011				      APTITUDE(8)
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