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Linux 2.6 - man page for inttypes.h (linux section 7posix)

<inttypes.h>(P) 		    POSIX Programmer's Manual			  <inttypes.h>(P)

NAME
       inttypes.h - fixed size integer types

SYNOPSIS
       #include <inttypes.h>

DESCRIPTION
       Some  of  the  functionality  described on this reference page extends the ISO C standard.
       Applications shall define the appropriate feature test macro (see  the  System  Interfaces
       volume  of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Section 2.2, The Compilation Environment) to enable the
       visibility of these symbols in this header.

       The <inttypes.h> header shall include the <stdint.h> header.

       The <inttypes.h> header shall include a definition of at least the following type:

       imaxdiv_t
	      Structure type that is the type of the value returned by the imaxdiv() function.

       The following macros shall be defined. Each expands to a character string literal contain-
       ing  a  conversion  specifier,  possibly  modified  by a length modifier, suitable for use
       within the format argument of a formatted input/output function when converting the corre-
       sponding  integer type. These macros have the general form of PRI (character string liter-
       als for the fprintf() and fwprintf() family of functions) or SCN (character string  liter-
       als for the fscanf() and fwscanf() family of functions), followed by the conversion speci-
       fier, followed by a name corresponding to a similar type  name  in  <stdint.h>.	In  these
       names,  N represents the width of the type as described in <stdint.h>.  For example, PRId-
       FAST32 can be used in  a  format  string  to  print  the  value	of  an	integer  of  type
       int_fast32_t.

       The fprintf() macros for signed integers are:

			     PRIdN  PRIdLEASTN	PRIdFASTN  PRIdMAX  PRIdPTR
			     PRIiN  PRIiLEASTN	PRIiFASTN  PRIiMAX  PRIiPTR

       The fprintf() macros for unsigned integers are:

			     PRIoN  PRIoLEASTN	PRIoFASTN  PRIoMAX  PRIoPTR
			     PRIuN  PRIuLEASTN	PRIuFASTN  PRIuMAX  PRIuPTR
			     PRIxN  PRIxLEASTN	PRIxFASTN  PRIxMAX  PRIxPTR
			     PRIXN  PRIXLEASTN	PRIXFASTN  PRIXMAX  PRIXPTR

       The fscanf() macros for signed integers are:

			     SCNdN  SCNdLEASTN	SCNdFASTN  SCNdMAX  SCNdPTR
			     SCNiN  SCNiLEASTN	SCNiFASTN  SCNiMAX  SCNiPTR

       The fscanf() macros for unsigned integers are:

			     SCNoN  SCNoLEASTN	SCNoFASTN  SCNoMAX  SCNoPTR
			     SCNuN  SCNuLEASTN	SCNuFASTN  SCNuMAX  SCNuPTR
			     SCNxN  SCNxLEASTN	SCNxFASTN  SCNxMAX  SCNxPTR

       For  each type that the implementation provides in <stdint.h>, the corresponding fprintf()
       and fwprintf() macros shall be defined and the corresponding fscanf() and fwscanf() macros
       shall be defined unless the implementation does not have a suitable modifier for the type.

       The  following  shall be declared as functions and may also be defined as macros. Function
       prototypes shall be provided.

	      intmax_t	imaxabs(intmax_t);
	      imaxdiv_t imaxdiv(intmax_t, intmax_t);
	      intmax_t	strtoimax(const char *restrict, char **restrict, int);
	      uintmax_t strtoumax(const char *restrict, char **restrict, int);
	      intmax_t	wcstoimax(const wchar_t *restrict, wchar_t **restrict, int);
	      uintmax_t wcstoumax(const wchar_t *restrict, wchar_t **restrict, int);

EXAMPLES
	      #include <inttypes.h>
	      #include <wchar.h>
	      int main(void)
	      {
		  uintmax_t i = UINTMAX_MAX; // This type always exists.
		  wprintf(L"The largest integer value is %020"
		      PRIxMAX "\n", i);
		  return 0;
	      }

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       The purpose of <inttypes.h> is to provide a set of integer  types  whose  definitions  are
       consistent  across  machines and independent of operating systems and other implementation
       idiosyncrasies.	It defines, via typedef, integer types of various sizes.  Implementations
       are  free to typedef them as ISO C standard integer types or extensions that they support.
       Consistent use of this header will greatly increase the portability of applications across
       platforms.

RATIONALE
       The  ISO/IEC 9899:1990 standard specified that the language should support four signed and
       unsigned integer data types- char, short, int, and long- but placed very  little  require-
       ment  on their size other than that int and short be at least 16 bits and long be at least
       as long as int and not smaller than 32 bits.  For  16-bit  systems,  most  implementations
       assigned  8,  16,  16, and 32 bits to char, short, int, and long, respectively. For 32-bit
       systems, the common practice has been to assign 8, 16, 32, and 32  bits	to  these  types.
       This difference in int size can create some problems for users who migrate from one system
       to another which assigns different sizes to integer  types,  because  the  ISO C  standard
       integer	promotion  rule can produce silent changes unexpectedly. The need for defining an
       extended integer type increased with the introduction of 64-bit systems.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       Macro names beginning with PRI or SCN followed by any lowercase letter or 'X' may be added
       to the macros defined in the <inttypes.h> header.

SEE ALSO
       The System Interfaces volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, imaxdiv()

COPYRIGHT
       Portions  of  this  text  are  reprinted  and  reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology  --  Portable	Operating  System
       Interface  (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by
       the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and  The  Open  Group.  In  the
       event  of  any  discrepancy  between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
       inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group			       2003				  <inttypes.h>(P)


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