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SVIPC(7)			    Linux Programmer's Manual				 SVIPC(7)

NAME
       svipc - System V interprocess communication mechanisms

SYNOPSIS
       #include <sys/msg.h>
       #include <sys/sem.h>
       #include <sys/shm.h>

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page refers to the Linux implementation of the System V interprocess communi-
       cation (IPC) mechanisms: message queues, semaphore sets, and shared memory  segments.   In
       the following, the word resource means an instantiation of one among such mechanisms.

   Resource access permissions
       For  each  resource,  the  system uses a common structure of type struct ipc_perm to store
       information needed in determining permissions to perform an IPC operation.   The  ipc_perm
       structure includes the following members:

	   struct ipc_perm {
	       uid_t	      cuid;   /* creator user ID */
	       gid_t	      cgid;   /* creator group ID */
	       uid_t	      uid;    /* owner user ID */
	       gid_t	      gid;    /* owner group ID */
	       unsigned short mode;   /* r/w permissions */
	   };

       The  mode member of the ipc_perm structure defines, with its lower 9 bits, the access per-
       missions to the resource for a process executing an IPC system call.  The permissions  are
       interpreted as follows:

	   0400    Read by user.
	   0200    Write by user.
	   0040    Read by group.
	   0020    Write by group.
	   0004    Read by others.
	   0002    Write by others.

       Bits  0100,  0010,  and	0001  (the  execute bits) are unused by the system.  Furthermore,
       "write" effectively means "alter" for a semaphore set.

       The same system header file also defines the following symbolic constants:

       IPC_CREAT     Create entry if key doesn't exist.

       IPC_EXCL      Fail if key exists.

       IPC_NOWAIT    Error if request must wait.

       IPC_PRIVATE   Private key.

       IPC_RMID      Remove resource.

       IPC_SET	     Set resource options.

       IPC_STAT      Get resource options.

       Note that IPC_PRIVATE is a key_t type, while all the other  symbolic  constants	are  flag
       fields and can be OR'ed into an int type variable.

   Message queues
       A  message queue is uniquely identified by a positive integer (its msqid) and has an asso-
       ciated data structure of type struct msqid_ds, defined in <sys/msg.h>, containing the fol-
       lowing members:

	   struct msqid_ds {
	       struct ipc_perm msg_perm;
	       msgqnum_t       msg_qnum;    /* no of messages on queue */
	       msglen_t        msg_qbytes;  /* bytes max on a queue */
	       pid_t	       msg_lspid;   /* PID of last msgsnd(2) call */
	       pid_t	       msg_lrpid;   /* PID of last msgrcv(2) call */
	       time_t	       msg_stime;   /* last msgsnd(2) time */
	       time_t	       msg_rtime;   /* last msgrcv(2) time */
	       time_t	       msg_ctime;   /* last change time */
	   };

       msg_perm   ipc_perm structure that specifies the access permissions on the message queue.

       msg_qnum   Number of messages currently on the message queue.

       msg_qbytes Maximum number of bytes of message text allowed on the message queue.

       msg_lspid  ID of the process that performed the last msgsnd(2) system call.

       msg_lrpid  ID of the process that performed the last msgrcv(2) system call.

       msg_stime  Time of the last msgsnd(2) system call.

       msg_rtime  Time of the last msgrcv(2) system call.

       msg_ctime  Time of the last system call that changed a member of the msqid_ds structure.

   Semaphore sets
       A  semaphore set is uniquely identified by a positive integer (its semid) and has an asso-
       ciated data structure of type struct semid_ds, defined in <sys/sem.h>, containing the fol-
       lowing members:

	   struct semid_ds {
	       struct ipc_perm sem_perm;
	       time_t	       sem_otime;   /* last operation time */
	       time_t	       sem_ctime;   /* last change time */
	       unsigned long   sem_nsems;   /* count of sems in set */
	   };

       sem_perm   ipc_perm structure that specifies the access permissions on the semaphore set.

       sem_otime  Time of last semop(2) system call.

       sem_ctime  Time of last semctl(2) system call that changed a member of the above structure
		  or of one semaphore belonging to the set.

       sem_nsems  Number of semaphores in the set.  Each semaphore of the set is referenced by	a
		  nonnegative integer ranging from 0 to sem_nsems-1.

       A semaphore is a data structure of type struct sem containing the following members:

	   struct sem {
	       int semval;  /* semaphore value */
	       int sempid;  /* PID for last operation */
	   };

       semval	  Semaphore value: a nonnegative integer.

       sempid	  ID of the last process that performed a semaphore operation on this semaphore.

   Shared memory segments
       A  shared  memory segment is uniquely identified by a positive integer (its shmid) and has
       an associated data structure of type struct shmid_ds, defined in  <sys/shm.h>,  containing
       the following members:

	   struct shmid_ds {
	       struct ipc_perm shm_perm;
	       size_t	       shm_segsz;   /* size of segment */
	       pid_t	       shm_cpid;    /* PID of creator */
	       pid_t	       shm_lpid;    /* PID, last operation */
	       shmatt_t        shm_nattch;  /* no. of current attaches */
	       time_t	       shm_atime;   /* time of last attach */
	       time_t	       shm_dtime;   /* time of last detach */
	       time_t	       shm_ctime;   /* time of last change */
	   };

       shm_perm   ipc_perm  structure  that specifies the access permissions on the shared memory
		  segment.

       shm_segsz  Size in bytes of the shared memory segment.

       shm_cpid   ID of the process that created the shared memory segment.

       shm_lpid   ID of the last process that executed a shmat(2) or shmdt(2) system call.

       shm_nattch Number of current alive attaches for this shared memory segment.

       shm_atime  Time of the last shmat(2) system call.

       shm_dtime  Time of the last shmdt(2) system call.

       shm_ctime  Time of the last shmctl(2) system call that changed shmid_ds.

SEE ALSO
       ipcmk(1), ipcrm(1), ipcs(1), ipc(2),  msgctl(2),  msgget(2),  msgrcv(2),  msgsnd(2),  sem-
       ctl(2), semget(2), semop(2), shmat(2), shmctl(2), shmdt(2), shmget(2), ftok(3)

COLOPHON
       This  page  is  part of release 3.55 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the
       project,    and	  information	 about	  reporting    bugs,	can    be    found     at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux					    2013-02-12					 SVIPC(7)
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