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MDOC(7) 		       BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual			  MDOC(7)

     mdoc -- quick reference guide for the -mdoc macro package

     groff -mdoc files ...

     The -mdoc package is a set of content-based and domain-based macros used to format the BSD
     man pages.  The macro names and their meanings are listed below for quick reference; for a
     detailed explanation on using the package, see the tutorial sampler mdoc.samples(7).

     Note that this is not the usual macro package for Linux documentation, although it is used
     for documentation of several widely used programs; see man(7).

     The macros are described in two groups, the first includes the structural and physical page
     layout macros.  The second contains the manual and general text domain macros which differ-
     entiate the -mdoc package from other troff formatting packages.

   Title Macros
     To create a valid manual page, these three macros, in this order, are required:
     .Dd   Month day, year			 Document date.
     .Dt   DOCUMENT_TITLE [section] [volume]	 Title, in upper case.
     .Os   OPERATING_SYSTEM [version/release]	 Operating system (BSD).

   Page Layout Macros
     Section headers, paragraph breaks, lists and displays.
     .Sh   Section Headers.  Valid headers, in the order of presentation:
	   NAME 	 Name section, should include the '.Nm' or '.Fn' and the '.Nd' macros.
	   SYNOPSIS	 Usage.
	   DESCRIPTION	 General description, should include options and parameters.
	   RETURN VALUE  Sections two and three function calls.
	   ENVIRONMENT	 Describe environment variables.
	   FILES	 Files associated with the subject.
	   EXAMPLES	 Examples and suggestions.
	   DIAGNOSTICS	 Normally used for section four device interface diagnostics.
	   ERRORS	 Sections two and three error and signal handling.
	   SEE ALSO	 Cross references and citations.
			 Conformance to standards if applicable.
	   HISTORY	 If a standard is not applicable, the history of the subject should be
	   BUGS 	 Gotchas and caveats.
	   other	 Customized headers may be added at the authors discretion.
     .Ss   Subsection Headers.
     .Pp   Paragraph Break.  Vertical space (one line).
     .D1   (D-one) Display-one Indent and display one text line.
     .Dl   (D-ell) Display-one literal.  Indent and display one line of literal text.
     .Bd   Begin-display block.  Display options:
	   -ragged	    Unjustified (ragged edges).
	   -filled	    Justified.
	   -literal	    Literal text or code.
	   -file name	    Read in named file and display.
	   -offset string   Offset display.  Acceptable string values:
			    left	Align block on left (default).
			    center	Approximate center margin.
			    indent	Six constant width spaces (a tab).
			    indent-two	Two tabs.
			    right	Left aligns block 2 inches from right.
			    xxn 	Where xx is a number from 4n to 99n.
			    Aa		Where Aa is a callable macro name.
			    string	The width of string is used.
     .Ed   End-display (matches .Bd).
     .Bl   Begin-list.	Create lists or columns.  Options:
		 -bullet    Bullet Item List
		 -item	    Unlabeled List
		 -enum	    Enumerated List
		 -tag	    Tag Labeled List
		 -diag	    Diagnostic List
		 -hang	    Hanging Labeled List
		 -ohang     Overhanging Labeled List
		 -inset     Inset or Run-on Labeled List
		 -offset    (All lists.) See '.Bd' begin-display above.
		 -width     (-tag and -hang lists only.)  See '.Bd'.
		 -compact   (All lists.)  Suppresses blank lines.
     .El   End-list.
     .It   List item.

     The manual and general text domain macros are special in that most of them are parsed for
     callable macros for example:

	   .Op Fl s Ar file
		       Produces [-s file]

     In this example, the option enclosure macro '.Op' is parsed, and calls the callable content
     macro 'Fl' which operates on the argument 's' and then calls the callable content macro 'Ar'
     which operates on the argument 'file'.  Some macros may be callable, but are not parsed and
     vice versa.  These macros are indicated in the parsed and callable columns below.

     Unless stated, manual domain macros share a common syntax:

	   .Va argument [ . , ; : ( ) [ ] argument ... ]

     Note: Opening and closing punctuation characters are recognized as such only if they are
     presented one at a time.  The string '),' is not recognized as punctuation and will be out-
     put with a leading white space and in what ever font the calling macro uses.  The argument
     list '] ) ,' is recognized as three sequential closing punctuation characters and a leading
     white space is not output between the characters and the previous argument (if any).  The
     special meaning of a punctuation character may be escaped with the string '\&'.  For example
     the following string,

	   .Ar file1 , file2 , file3 ) .   Produces file1, file2, file3).

   Manual Domain Macros
     Name    Parsed    Callable     Description
     Ad      Yes       Yes	    Address. (This macro may be deprecated.)
     An      Yes       Yes	    Author name.
     Ar      Yes       Yes	    Command-line argument.
     Cd      No        No	    Configuration declaration (section four only).
     Cm      Yes       Yes	    Command-line argument modifier.
     Dv      Yes       Yes	    Defined variable (source code).
     Er      Yes       Yes	    Error number (source code).
     Ev      Yes       Yes	    Environment variable.
     Fa      Yes       Yes	    Function argument.
     Fd      Yes       Yes	    Function declaration.
     Fn      Yes       Yes	    Function call (also .Fo and .Fc).
     Ic      Yes       Yes	    Interactive command.
     Li      Yes       Yes	    Literal text.
     Nm      Yes       Yes	    Command name.
     Op      Yes       Yes	    Option (also .Oo and .Oc).
     Ot      Yes       Yes	    Old style function type (Fortran only).
     Pa      Yes       Yes	    Pathname or filename.
     St      Yes       Yes	    Standards (-p1003.2, -p1003.1 or -ansiC)
     Va      Yes       Yes	    Variable name.
     Vt      Yes       Yes	    Variable type (Fortran only).
     Xr      Yes       Yes	    Manual Page Cross Reference.

   General Text Domain Macros
     Name    Parsed    Callable     Description
     %A      Yes       No	    Reference author.
     %B      Yes       Yes	    Reference book title.
     %C      No        No	    Reference place of publishing (city).
     %D      No        No	    Reference date.
     %J      Yes       Yes	    Reference journal title.
     %N      No        No	    Reference issue number.
     %O      No        No	    Reference optional information.
     %P      No        No	    Reference page number(s).
     %R      No        No	    Reference report Name.
     %T      Yes       Yes	    Reference article title.
     %V      No        No	    Reference volume.
     Ac      Yes       Yes	    Angle close quote.
     Ao      Yes       Yes	    Angle open quote.
     Ap      Yes       Yes	    Apostrophe.
     Aq      Yes       Yes	    Angle quote.
     At      No        No	    AT&T UNIX
     Bc      Yes       Yes	    Bracket close quote.
     Bf      No        No	    Begin font mode.
     Bo      Yes       Yes	    Bracket open quote.
     Bq      Yes       Yes	    Bracket quote.
     Bx      Yes       Yes	    BSD.
     Db      No        No	    Debug (default is "off")
     Dc      Yes       Yes	    Double close quote.
     Do      Yes       Yes	    Double open quote.
     Dq      Yes       Yes	    Double quote.
     Ec      Yes       Yes	    Enclose string close quote.
     Ef      No        No	    End font mode.
     Em      Yes       Yes	    Emphasis (traditional English).
     Eo      Yes       Yes	    Enclose string open quote.
     Fx      No        No	    FreeBSD operating system
     No      Yes       Yes	    Normal text (no-op).
     Ns      Yes       Yes	    No space.
     Pc      Yes       Yes	    Parenthesis close quote.
     Pf      Yes       No	    Prefix string.
     Po      Yes       Yes	    Parenthesis open quote.
     Pq      Yes       Yes	    Parentheses quote.
     Qc      Yes       Yes	    Straight Double close quote.
     Ql      Yes       Yes	    Quoted literal.
     Qo      Yes       Yes	    Straight Double open quote.
     Qq      Yes       Yes	    Straight Double quote.
     Re      No        No	    Reference end.
     Rs      No        No	    Reference start.
     Rv      No        No	    Return values (sections two and three only).
     Sc      Yes       Yes	    Single close quote.
     So      Yes       Yes	    Single open quote.
     Sq      Yes       Yes	    Single quote.
     Sm      No        No	    Space mode (default is "on")
     Sx      Yes       Yes	    Section Cross Reference.
     Sy      Yes       Yes	    Symbolic (traditional English).
     Tn      Yes       Yes	    Trade or type name (small Caps).
     Ux      Yes       Yes	    UNIX
     Xc      Yes       Yes	    Extend argument list close.
     Xo      Yes       Yes	    Extend argument list open.

     Macro names ending in 'q' quote remaining items on the argument list.  Macro names ending in
     'o' begin a quote which may span more than one line of input and are close quoted with the
     matching macro name ending in 'c'.  Enclosure macros may be nested and are limited to eight

     Note: the extended argument list macros ('.Xo', '.Xc') and the function enclosure macros
     ('.Fo', '.Fc') are irregular.  The extended list macros are used when the number of macro
     arguments would exceed the troff limitation of nine arguments.

     The macros UR (starting a URI/URL hypertext reference), UE (ending one), and UN (identifying
     a target for a reference) are also available.  See man(7) for more information on these

     doc.tmac	       Manual and general text domain macros.
     tmac/doc-common   Common structural macros and definitions.
     tmac/doc-nroff    Site dependent nroff style file.
     tmac/doc-ditroff  Site dependent troff style file.
     tmac/doc-syms     Special defines (such as the standards macro).

     groff_mdoc(7), mdoc.samples(7), man(7), man-pages(7)

     This page is part of release 3.55 of the Linux man-pages project.	A description of the
     project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at

Linux					  July 11, 1999 				    Linux
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