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GITREVISIONS(7) 			    Git Manual				  GITREVISIONS(7)

NAME
       gitrevisions - specifying revisions and ranges for Git

SYNOPSIS
       gitrevisions

DESCRIPTION
       Many Git commands take revision parameters as arguments. Depending on the command, they
       denote a specific commit or, for commands which walk the revision graph (such as git-
       log(1)), all commits which can be reached from that commit. In the latter case one can
       also specify a range of revisions explicitly.

       In addition, some Git commands (such as git-show(1)) also take revision parameters which
       denote other objects than commits, e.g. blobs ("files") or trees ("directories of files").

SPECIFYING REVISIONS
       A revision parameter <rev> typically, but not necessarily, names a commit object. It uses
       what is called an extended SHA-1 syntax. Here are various ways to spell object names. The
       ones listed near the end of this list name trees and blobs contained in a commit.

       <sha1>, e.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735, dae86e
	   The full SHA-1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a leading substring that
	   is unique within the repository. E.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and
	   dae86e both name the same commit object if there is no other object in your repository
	   whose object name starts with dae86e.

       <describeOutput>, e.g. v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb
	   Output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally followed by a dash and a
	   number of commits, followed by a dash, a g, and an abbreviated object name.

       <refname>, e.g. master, heads/master, refs/heads/master
	   A symbolic ref name. E.g.  master typically means the commit object referenced by
	   refs/heads/master. If you happen to have both heads/master and tags/master, you can
	   explicitly say heads/master to tell Git which one you mean. When ambiguous, a
	   <refname> is disambiguated by taking the first match in the following rules:

	    1. If $GIT_DIR/<refname> exists, that is what you mean (this is usually useful only
	       for HEAD, FETCH_HEAD, ORIG_HEAD, MERGE_HEAD and CHERRY_PICK_HEAD);

	    2. otherwise, refs/<refname> if it exists;

	    3. otherwise, refs/tags/<refname> if it exists;

	    4. otherwise, refs/heads/<refname> if it exists;

	    5. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname> if it exists;

	    6. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname>/HEAD if it exists.

	       HEAD names the commit on which you based the changes in the working tree.
	       FETCH_HEAD records the branch which you fetched from a remote repository with your
	       last git fetch invocation.  ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that move your HEAD
	       in a drastic way, to record the position of the HEAD before their operation, so
	       that you can easily change the tip of the branch back to the state before you ran
	       them.  MERGE_HEAD records the commit(s) which you are merging into your branch
	       when you run git merge.	CHERRY_PICK_HEAD records the commit which you are
	       cherry-picking when you run git cherry-pick.

	       Note that any of the refs/* cases above may come either from the $GIT_DIR/refs
	       directory or from the $GIT_DIR/packed-refs file. While the ref name encoding is
	       unspecified, UTF-8 is preferred as some output processing may assume ref names in
	       UTF-8.

       @

	   @ alone is a shortcut for HEAD.

       <refname>@{<date>}, e.g. master@{yesterday}, HEAD@{5 minutes ago}
	   A ref followed by the suffix @ with a date specification enclosed in a brace pair
	   (e.g.  {yesterday}, {1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour 1 second ago} or {1979-02-26
	   18:30:00}) specifies the value of the ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may
	   only be used immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing log
	   ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the state of your local ref at a given
	   time; e.g., what was in your local master branch last week. If you want to look at
	   commits made during certain times, see --since and --until.

       <refname>@{<n>}, e.g. master@{1}
	   A ref followed by the suffix @ with an ordinal specification enclosed in a brace pair
	   (e.g.  {1}, {15}) specifies the n-th prior value of that ref. For example master@{1}
	   is the immediate prior value of master while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of
	   master. This suffix may only be used immediately following a ref name and the ref must
	   have an existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<refname>).

       @{<n>}, e.g. @{1}
	   You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at a reflog entry of the
	   current branch. For example, if you are on branch blabla then @{1} means the same as
	   blabla@{1}.

       @{-<n>}, e.g. @{-1}
	   The construct @{-<n>} means the <n>th branch checked out before the current one.

       <branchname>@{upstream}, e.g. master@{upstream}, @{u}
	   The suffix @{upstream} to a branchname (short form <branchname>@{u}) refers to the
	   branch that the branch specified by branchname is set to build on top of. A missing
	   branchname defaults to the current one.

       <rev>^, e.g. HEAD^, v1.5.1^0
	   A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the first parent of that commit object.  ^<n>
	   means the <n>th parent (i.e.  <rev>^ is equivalent to <rev>^1). As a special rule,
	   <rev>^0 means the commit itself and is used when <rev> is the object name of a tag
	   object that refers to a commit object.

       <rev>~<n>, e.g. master~3
	   A suffix ~<n> to a revision parameter means the commit object that is the <n>th
	   generation ancestor of the named commit object, following only the first parents. I.e.
	   <rev>~3 is equivalent to <rev>^^^ which is equivalent to <rev>^1^1^1. See below for an
	   illustration of the usage of this form.

       <rev>^{<type>}, e.g. v0.99.8^{commit}
	   A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace pair means dereference
	   the object at <rev> recursively until an object of type <type> is found or the object
	   cannot be dereferenced anymore (in which case, barf). For example, if <rev> is a
	   commit-ish, <rev>^{commit} describes the corresponding commit object. Similarly, if
	   <rev> is a tree-ish, <rev>^{tree} describes the corresponding tree object.  <rev>^0 is
	   a short-hand for <rev>^{commit}.

	   rev^{object} can be used to make sure rev names an object that exists, without
	   requiring rev to be a tag, and without dereferencing rev; because a tag is already an
	   object, it does not have to be dereferenced even once to get to an object.

	   rev^{tag} can be used to ensure that rev identifies an existing tag object.

       <rev>^{}, e.g. v0.99.8^{}
	   A suffix ^ followed by an empty brace pair means the object could be a tag, and
	   dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag object is found.

       <rev>^{/<text>}, e.g. HEAD^{/fix nasty bug}
	   A suffix ^ to a revision parameter, followed by a brace pair that contains a text led
	   by a slash, is the same as the :/fix nasty bug syntax below except that it returns the
	   youngest matching commit which is reachable from the <rev> before ^.

       :/<text>, e.g. :/fix nasty bug
	   A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names a commit whose commit message
	   matches the specified regular expression. This name returns the youngest matching
	   commit which is reachable from any ref. If the commit message starts with a !  you
	   have to repeat that; the special sequence :/!, followed by something else than !, is
	   reserved for now. The regular expression can match any part of the commit message. To
	   match messages starting with a string, one can use e.g.  :/^foo.

       <rev>:<path>, e.g. HEAD:README, :README, master:./README
	   A suffix : followed by a path names the blob or tree at the given path in the tree-ish
	   object named by the part before the colon.  :path (with an empty part before the
	   colon) is a special case of the syntax described next: content recorded in the index
	   at the given path. A path starting with ./ or ../ is relative to the current working
	   directory. The given path will be converted to be relative to the working tree's root
	   directory. This is most useful to address a blob or tree from a commit or tree that
	   has the same tree structure as the working tree.

       :<n>:<path>, e.g. :0:README, :README
	   A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a colon, followed by a
	   path, names a blob object in the index at the given path. A missing stage number (and
	   the colon that follows it) names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage 1 is the
	   common ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch's version (typically the current
	   branch), and stage 3 is the version from the branch which is being merged.

       Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C are parents of commit
       node A. Parent commits are ordered left-to-right.

	   G   H   I   J
	    \ /     \ /
	     D	 E   F
	      \  |  / \
	       \ | /   |
		\|/    |
		 B     C
		  \   /
		   \ /
		    A

	   A =	    = A^0
	   B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
	   C = A^2  = A^2
	   D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
	   E = B^2  = A^^2
	   F = B^3  = A^^3
	   G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
	   H = D^2  = B^^2    = A^^^2  = A~2^2
	   I = F^   = B^3^    = A^^3^
	   J = F^2  = B^3^2   = A^^3^2

SPECIFYING RANGES
       History traversing commands such as git log operate on a set of commits, not just a single
       commit. To these commands, specifying a single revision with the notation described in the
       previous section means the set of commits reachable from that commit, following the commit
       ancestry chain.

       To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix ^ notation is used. E.g. ^r1 r2 means
       commits reachable from r2 but exclude the ones reachable from r1.

       This set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand for it. When you have two
       commits r1 and r2 (named according to the syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above),
       you can ask for commits that are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable from
       r1 by ^r1 r2 and it can be written as r1..r2.

       A similar notation r1...r2 is called symmetric difference of r1 and r2 and is defined as
       r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2). It is the set of commits that are reachable
       from either one of r1 or r2 but not from both.

       In these two shorthands, you can omit one end and let it default to HEAD. For example,
       origin.. is a shorthand for origin..HEAD and asks "What did I do since I forked from the
       origin branch?" Similarly, ..origin is a shorthand for HEAD..origin and asks "What did the
       origin do since I forked from them?" Note that .. would mean HEAD..HEAD which is an empty
       range that is both reachable and unreachable from HEAD.

       Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit and its parent commits
       exist. The r1^@ notation means all parents of r1. r1^! includes commit r1 but excludes all
       of its parents.

       To summarize:

       <rev>
	   Include commits that are reachable from (i.e. ancestors of) <rev>.

       ^<rev>
	   Exclude commits that are reachable from (i.e. ancestors of) <rev>.

       <rev1>..<rev2>
	   Include commits that are reachable from <rev2> but exclude those that are reachable
	   from <rev1>. When either <rev1> or <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

       <rev1>...<rev2>
	   Include commits that are reachable from either <rev1> or <rev2> but exclude those that
	   are reachable from both. When either <rev1> or <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

       <rev>^@, e.g. HEAD^@
	   A suffix ^ followed by an at sign is the same as listing all parents of <rev>
	   (meaning, include anything reachable from its parents, but not the commit itself).

       <rev>^!, e.g. HEAD^!
	   A suffix ^ followed by an exclamation mark is the same as giving commit <rev> and then
	   all its parents prefixed with ^ to exclude them (and their ancestors).

       Here are a handful of examples:

	   D		    G H D
	   D F		    G H I J D F
	   ^G D 	    H D
	   ^D B 	    E I J F B
	   B..C 	    C
	   B...C	    G H D E B C
	   ^D B C	    E I J F B C
	   C		    I J F C
	   C^@		    I J F
	   C^!		    C
	   F^! D	    G H D F

SEE ALSO
       git-rev-parse(1)

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 1.8.5.3				    01/14/2014				  GITREVISIONS(7)
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