GITCREDENTIALS(7) Git Manual GITCREDENTIALS(7)
gitcredentials - providing usernames and passwords to Git
git config credential.https://example.com.username myusername
git config credential.helper "$helper $options"
Git will sometimes need credentials from the user in order to perform operations; for
example, it may need to ask for a username and password in order to access a remote
repository over HTTP. This manual describes the mechanisms Git uses to request these
credentials, as well as some features to avoid inputting these credentials repeatedly.
Without any credential helpers defined, Git will try the following strategies to ask the
user for usernames and passwords:
1. If the GIT_ASKPASS environment variable is set, the program specified by the variable
is invoked. A suitable prompt is provided to the program on the command line, and the
user's input is read from its standard output.
2. Otherwise, if the core.askpass configuration variable is set, its value is used as
3. Otherwise, if the SSH_ASKPASS environment variable is set, its value is used as above.
4. Otherwise, the user is prompted on the terminal.
It can be cumbersome to input the same credentials over and over. Git provides two methods
to reduce this annoyance:
1. Static configuration of usernames for a given authentication context.
2. Credential helpers to cache or store passwords, or to interact with a system password
wallet or keychain.
The first is simple and appropriate if you do not have secure storage available for a
password. It is generally configured by adding this to your config:
username = me
Credential helpers, on the other hand, are external programs from which Git can request
both usernames and passwords; they typically interface with secure storage provided by the
OS or other programs.
To use a helper, you must first select one to use. Git currently includes the following
Cache credentials in memory for a short period of time. See git-credential-cache(1)
Store credentials indefinitely on disk. See git-credential-store(1) for details.
You may also have third-party helpers installed; search for credential-* in the output of
git help -a, and consult the documentation of individual helpers. Once you have selected a
helper, you can tell Git to use it by putting its name into the credential.helper
1. Find a helper.
$ git help -a | grep credential-
2. Read its description.
$ git help credential-foo
3. Tell Git to use it.
$ git config --global credential.helper foo
If there are multiple instances of the credential.helper configuration variable, each
helper will be tried in turn, and may provide a username, password, or nothing. Once Git
has acquired both a username and a password, no more helpers will be tried.
Git considers each credential to have a context defined by a URL. This context is used to
look up context-specific configuration, and is passed to any helpers, which may use it as
an index into secure storage.
For instance, imagine we are accessing https://example.com/foo.git. When Git looks into a
config file to see if a section matches this context, it will consider the two a match if
the context is a more-specific subset of the pattern in the config file. For example, if
you have this in your config file:
username = foo
then we will match: both protocols are the same, both hosts are the same, and the
"pattern" URL does not care about the path component at all. However, this context would
username = foo
because the hostnames differ. Nor would it match foo.example.com; Git compares hostnames
exactly, without considering whether two hosts are part of the same domain. Likewise, a
config entry for http://example.com would not match: Git compares the protocols exactly.
Options for a credential context can be configured either in credential.* (which applies
to all credentials), or credential.<url>.*, where <url> matches the context as described
The following options are available in either location:
The name of an external credential helper, and any associated options. If the helper
name is not an absolute path, then the string git credential- is prepended. The
resulting string is executed by the shell (so, for example, setting this to foo
--option=bar will execute git credential-foo --option=bar via the shell. See the
manual of specific helpers for examples of their use.
A default username, if one is not provided in the URL.
By default, Git does not consider the "path" component of an http URL to be worth
matching via external helpers. This means that a credential stored for
https://example.com/foo.git will also be used for https://example.com/bar.git. If you
do want to distinguish these cases, set this option to true.
You can write your own custom helpers to interface with any system in which you keep
credentials. See the documentation for Git's credentials API for details.
Part of the git(1) suite
1. credentials API
Git 184.108.40.206 01/14/2014 GITCREDENTIALS(7)