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SHM_OPEN(P)			    POSIX Programmer's Manual			      SHM_OPEN(P)

NAME
       shm_open - open a shared memory object (REALTIME)

SYNOPSIS
       #include <sys/mman.h>

       int shm_open(const char *name, int oflag, mode_t mode);

DESCRIPTION
       The  shm_open() function shall establish a connection between a shared memory object and a
       file descriptor. It shall create an open file description that refers to the shared memory
       object  and a file descriptor that refers to that open file description. The file descrip-
       tor is used by other functions to refer to that shared memory object.  The  name  argument
       points  to  a  string  naming  a  shared memory object. It is unspecified whether the name
       appears in the file system and is visible to other functions that take pathnames as  argu-
       ments. The name argument conforms to the construction rules for a pathname. If name begins
       with the slash character, then processes calling shm_open() with the same  value  of  name
       refer  to  the  same  shared memory object, as long as that name has not been removed.  If
       name does not begin with the slash character, the effect  is  implementation-defined.  The
       interpretation  of  slash  characters  other  than  the leading slash character in name is
       implementation-defined.

       If successful, shm_open() shall return a file descriptor for the shared memory object that
       is  the lowest numbered file descriptor not currently open for that process. The open file
       description is new, and therefore the file descriptor does not share  it  with  any  other
       processes.  It is unspecified whether the file offset is set. The FD_CLOEXEC file descrip-
       tor flag associated with the new file descriptor is set.

       The file status flags and file access modes of the open file description are according  to
       the  value of oflag. The oflag argument is the bitwise-inclusive OR of the following flags
       defined in the <fcntl.h> header. Applications specify exactly one of the first two  values
       (access modes) below in the value of oflag:

       O_RDONLY
	      Open for read access only.

       O_RDWR Open for read or write access.

       Any combination of the remaining flags may be specified in the value of oflag:

       O_CREAT
	      If  the shared memory object exists, this flag has no effect, except as noted under
	      O_EXCL below. Otherwise, the shared memory object is created; the user  ID  of  the
	      shared  memory  object  shall  be  set to the effective user ID of the process; the
	      group ID of the shared memory object is set to a system default group ID or to  the
	      effective  group ID of the process. The permission bits of the shared memory object
	      shall be set to the value of the mode argument except those set in  the  file  mode
	      creation mask of the process. When bits in mode other than the file permission bits
	      are set, the effect is unspecified. The mode argument does not affect  whether  the
	      shared  memory  object  is opened for reading, for writing, or for both. The shared
	      memory object has a size of zero.

       O_EXCL If O_EXCL and O_CREAT are set, shm_open() fails if the shared memory object exists.
	      The  check  for  the  existence of the shared memory object and the creation of the
	      object if it does not exist is atomic with respect  to  other  processes	executing
	      shm_open()  naming  the  same  shared memory object with O_EXCL and O_CREAT set. If
	      O_EXCL is set and O_CREAT is not set, the result is undefined.

       O_TRUNC
	      If the shared memory object exists, and  it  is  successfully  opened  O_RDWR,  the
	      object  shall be truncated to zero length and the mode and owner shall be unchanged
	      by this function call. The result of using O_TRUNC with O_RDONLY is undefined.

       When a shared memory object is created, the state of the shared memory  object,	including
       all data associated with the shared memory object, persists until the shared memory object
       is unlinked and all other references are gone. It is  unspecified  whether  the	name  and
       shared memory object state remain valid after a system reboot.

RETURN VALUE
       Upon  successful  completion,  the shm_open() function shall return a non-negative integer
       representing the lowest numbered unused file descriptor. Otherwise, it shall return -1 and
       set errno to indicate the error.

ERRORS
       The shm_open() function shall fail if:

       EACCES The  shared memory object exists and the permissions specified by oflag are denied,
	      or the shared memory object does not exist and permission to create the shared mem-
	      ory object is denied, or O_TRUNC is specified and write permission is denied.

       EEXIST O_CREAT and O_EXCL are set and the named shared memory object already exists.

       EINTR  The shm_open() operation was interrupted by a signal.

       EINVAL The shm_open() operation is not supported for the given name.

       EMFILE Too many file descriptors are currently in use by this process.

       ENAMETOOLONG
	      The  length  of  the  name  argument  exceeds {PATH_MAX} or a pathname component is
	      longer than {NAME_MAX}.

       ENFILE Too many shared memory objects are currently open in the system.

       ENOENT O_CREAT is not set and the named shared memory object does not exist.

       ENOSPC There is insufficient space for the creation of the new shared memory object.

       The following sections are informative.

EXAMPLES
       None.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

RATIONALE
       When the Memory Mapped Files option is supported, the normal open() call is used to obtain
       a  descriptor to a file to be mapped according to existing practice with mmap().  When the
       Shared Memory Objects option is supported, the shm_open() function shall obtain a descrip-
       tor to the shared memory object to be mapped.

       There  is ample precedent for having a file descriptor represent several types of objects.
       In the POSIX.1-1990 standard, a file descriptor can represent a file, a pipe,  a  FIFO,	a
       tty,  or  a  directory.	 Many  implementations simply have an operations vector, which is
       indexed by the file descriptor type and does very different operations. Note that in  some
       cases  the file descriptor passed to generic operations on file descriptors is returned by
       open() or creat() and in some cases returned by alternate functions, such as  pipe().  The
       latter technique is used by shm_open().

       Note  that such shared memory objects can actually be implemented as mapped files. In both
       cases, the size can be set after the  open  using  ftruncate().	The  shm_open()  function
       itself does not create a shared object of a specified size because this would duplicate an
       extant function that set the size of an object referenced by a file descriptor.

       On implementations where memory objects are implemented using the  existing  file  system,
       the  shm_open()	function  may  be  implemented using a macro that invokes open(), and the
       shm_unlink() function may be implemented using a macro that invokes unlink().

       For implementations without a permanent file system, the definition of  the  name  of  the
       memory  objects	is  allowed not to survive a system reboot. Note that this allows systems
       with a permanent file system to implement memory objects as data  structures  internal  to
       the implementation as well.

       On  implementations  that  choose  to  implement  memory  objects using memory directly, a
       shm_open() followed by an ftruncate() and close() can be used to preallocate a shared mem-
       ory  area  and  to  set the size of that preallocation.	This may be necessary for systems
       without virtual memory hardware support in order to ensure that the memory is contiguous.

       The set of valid open flags to shm_open() was restricted to O_RDONLY, O_RDWR, O_CREAT, and
       O_TRUNC	because  these	could  be easily implemented on most memory mapping systems. This
       volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 is silent on the results if the implementation cannot  sup-
       ply  the  requested file access because of implementation-defined reasons, including hard-
       ware ones.

       The error conditions [EACCES] and [ENOTSUP] are provided to inform  the	application  that
       the implementation cannot complete a request.

       [EACCES] indicates for implementation-defined reasons, probably hardware-related, that the
       implementation cannot comply with a requested  mode  because  it  conflicts  with  another
       requested  mode.  An  example might be that an application desires to open a memory object
       two times, mapping different areas with different access  modes.   If  the  implementation
       cannot  map  a  single area into a process space in two places, which would be required if
       different access modes were required for the two areas, then the implementation may inform
       the application at the time of the second open.

       [ENOTSUP]  indicates  for  implementation-defined reasons, probably hardware-related, that
       the implementation cannot comply with a requested mode at all. An example  would  be  that
       the hardware of the implementation cannot support write-only shared memory areas.

       On all implementations, it may be desirable to restrict the location of the memory objects
       to specific file systems for performance (such as a RAM	disk)  or  implementation-defined
       reasons	(shared  memory supported directly only on certain file systems).  The shm_open()
       function may be used to enforce these restrictions.  There are a number of methods  avail-
       able to the application to determine an appropriate name of the file or the location of an
       appropriate directory. One way is from the environment via getenv(). Another would be from
       a configuration file.

       This volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 specifies that memory objects have initial contents of
       zero when created. This is consistent with current behavior for both files and newly allo-
       cated  memory.  For  those  implementations that use physical memory, it would be possible
       that such implementations could simply use available memory and give  it  to  the  process
       uninitialized.  This, however, is not consistent with standard behavior for the uninitial-
       ized data area, the stack, and of course, files. Finally, it is highly  desirable  to  set
       the  allocated  memory  to zero for security reasons. Thus, initializing memory objects to
       zero is required.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       close() , dup() , exec() , fcntl() , mmap() , shmat() , shmctl() , shmdt() ,  shm_unlink()
       , umask() , the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, <fcntl.h>, <sys/mman.h>

COPYRIGHT
       Portions  of  this  text  are  reprinted  and  reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology  --  Portable	Operating  System
       Interface  (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by
       the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and  The  Open  Group.  In  the
       event  of  any  discrepancy  between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
       inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group			       2003				      SHM_OPEN(P)
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