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PTHREAD_ATFORK(P)		    POSIX Programmer's Manual			PTHREAD_ATFORK(P)

NAME
       pthread_atfork - register fork handlers

SYNOPSIS
       #include <pthread.h>

       int pthread_atfork(void (*prepare)(void), void (*parent)(void),
	      void (*child)(void));

DESCRIPTION
       The  pthread_atfork()  function	shall declare fork handlers to be called before and after
       fork(), in the context of the thread that called fork(). The prepare fork handler shall be
       called  before  fork()  processing commences. The parent fork handle shall be called after
       fork() processing completes in the parent process. The child fork handler shall be  called
       after  fork() processing completes in the child process.  If no handling is desired at one
       or more of these three points, the corresponding fork handler address(es) may  be  set  to
       NULL.

       The  order of calls to pthread_atfork() is significant. The parent and child fork handlers
       shall be called in the order in which they were established by calls to	pthread_atfork().
       The prepare fork handlers shall be called in the opposite order.

RETURN VALUE
       Upon  successful  completion, pthread_atfork() shall return a value of zero; otherwise, an
       error number shall be returned to indicate the error.

ERRORS
       The pthread_atfork() function shall fail if:

       ENOMEM Insufficient table space exists to record the fork handler addresses.

       The pthread_atfork() function shall not return an error code of [EINTR].

       The following sections are informative.

EXAMPLES
       None.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

RATIONALE
       There are at least two serious problems with the semantics of fork() in	a  multi-threaded
       program.  One  problem has to do with state (for example, memory) covered by mutexes. Con-
       sider the case where one thread has a mutex locked and the state covered by that mutex  is
       inconsistent  while  another thread calls fork(). In the child, the mutex is in the locked
       state (locked by a nonexistent thread and thus can never be unlocked).  Having  the  child
       simply  reinitialize  the mutex is unsatisfactory since this approach does not resolve the
       question about how to correct or otherwise deal with the inconsistent state in the child.

       It is suggested that programs that use fork() call an exec function very  soon  afterwards
       in  the	child  process,  thus resetting all states. In the meantime, only a short list of
       async-signal-safe library routines are promised to be available.

       Unfortunately, this solution does not  address  the  needs  of  multi-threaded  libraries.
       Application  programs  may  not be aware that a multi-threaded library is in use, and they
       feel free to call any number of library routines between the fork() and exec  calls,  just
       as  they  always  have.	 Indeed,  they may be extant single-threaded programs and cannot,
       therefore, be expected to obey new restrictions imposed by the threads library.

       On the other hand, the multi-threaded library needs a way to protect  its  internal  state
       during  fork()  in  case  it  is re-entered later in the child process. The problem arises
       especially in multi-threaded I/O libraries, which are almost sure to  be  invoked  between
       the  fork()  and  exec  calls  to effect I/O redirection. The solution may require locking
       mutex variables during fork(), or it may entail simply resetting the state  in  the  child
       after the fork() processing completes.

       The  pthread_atfork()  function	provides multi-threaded libraries with a means to protect
       themselves from innocent application programs that call fork(),	and  it  provides  multi-
       threaded  application  programs	with  a standard mechanism for protecting themselves from
       fork() calls in a library routine or the application itself.

       The expected usage is that the prepare handler acquires all mutex locks and the other  two
       fork handlers release them.

       For  example,  an  application  can  supply  a prepare routine that acquires the necessary
       mutexes the library maintains and supply child and  parent  routines  that  release  those
       mutexes,  thus  ensuring  that  the  child  gets a consistent snapshot of the state of the
       library (and that no mutexes are left stranded).  Alternatively, some libraries	might  be
       able  to supply just a child routine that reinitializes the mutexes in the library and all
       associated states to some known value (for example, what it was when the image was  origi-
       nally executed).

       When  fork()  is called, only the calling thread is duplicated in the child process.  Syn-
       chronization variables remain in the same state in the child as they were in the parent at
       the  time fork() was called. Thus, for example, mutex locks may be held by threads that no
       longer exist in the child process, and any associated states  may  be  inconsistent.   The
       parent  process	may avoid this by explicit code that acquires and releases locks critical
       to the child via pthread_atfork().  In addition, any critical threads need to be recreated
       and reinitialized to the proper state in the child (also via pthread_atfork()).

       A higher-level package may acquire locks on its own data structures before invoking lower-
       level packages. Under this scenario, the order specified for fork handler calls	allows	a
       simple  rule  of  initialization  for avoiding package deadlock: a package initializes all
       packages on which it depends before it calls the pthread_atfork() function for itself.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       atexit() , fork() , the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, <sys/types.h>

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and	reproduced  in	electronic  form  from	IEEE  Std
       1003.1,	2003  Edition,	Standard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System
       Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003  by
       the  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE  and  The  Open  Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
       inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group			       2003				PTHREAD_ATFORK(P)
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