
LOG(P) POSIX Programmer's Manual LOG(P)
NAME
log, logf, logl  natural logarithm function
SYNOPSIS
#include <math.h>
double log(double x);
float logf(float x);
long double logl(long double x);
DESCRIPTION
These functions shall compute the natural logarithm of their argument x, log_e(x).
An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to zero and call
feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if errno is non
zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID  FE_DIVBYZERO  FE_OVERFLOW  FE_UNDERFLOW) is nonzero,
an error has occurred.
RETURN VALUE
Upon successful completion, these functions shall return the natural logarithm of x.
If x is +0, a pole error shall occur and log(), logf(), and logl() shall return
HUGE_VAL, HUGE_VALF, and HUGE_VALL, respectively.
For finite values of x that are less than 0, or if x is Inf, a domain error shall
occur, and either a NaN (if supported), or an implementationdefined value shall be
returned.
If x is NaN, a NaN shall be returned.
If x is 1, +0 shall be returned.
If x is +Inf, x shall be returned.
ERRORS
These functions shall fail if:
Domain Error
The finite value of x is negative, or x is Inf.
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is nonzero, then errno shall be
set to [EDOM]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is nonzero,
then the invalid floatingpoint exception shall be raised.
Pole Error
The value of x is zero.
If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is nonzero, then errno shall be
set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non
zero, then the dividebyzero floatingpoint exception shall be raised.
The following sections are informative.
EXAMPLES
None.
APPLICATION USAGE
On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling &
MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be nonzero.
RATIONALE
None.
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
None.
SEE ALSO
exp() , feclearexcept() , fetestexcept() , isnan() , log10() , log1p() , the Base Defini
tions volume of IEEE Std 1003.12001, Section 4.18, Treatment of Error Conditions for
Mathematical Functions, <math.h>
COPYRIGHT
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology  Portable Operating System
Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 20012003 by
the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group
Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig
inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .
IEEE/The Open Group 2003 LOG(P) 
