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CPROJ(P)POSIX Programmer's Manual CPROJ(P)NAMEcproj, cprojf, cprojl - complex projection functionsSYNOPSIS#include <complex.h> double complex cproj(double complex z); float complex cprojf(float complex z); long double complex cprojl(long double complex z);DESCRIPTIONThese functions shall compute a projection of z onto the Riemann sphere: z projects to z, except that all complex infinities (even those with one infinite part and one NaN part) project to positive infinity on the real axis. If z has an infinite part, then cproj( z) shall be equivalent to: INFINITY + I * copysign(0.0, cimag(z))RETURN VALUEThese functions shall return the value of the projection onto the Riemann sphere.ERRORSNo errors are defined. The following sections are informative.EXAMPLESNone.APPLICATION USAGENone.RATIONALETwo topologies are commonly used in complex mathematics: the complex plane with its con- tinuum of infinities, and the Riemann sphere with its single infinity. The complex plane is better suited for transcendental functions, the Riemann sphere for algebraic functions. The complex types with their multiplicity of infinities provide a useful (though imper- fect) model for the complex plane. The cproj() function helps model the Riemann sphere by mapping all infinities to one, and should be used just before any operation, especially comparisons, that might give spurious results for any of the other infinities. Note that a complex value with one infinite part and one NaN part is regarded as an infinity, not a NaN, because if one part is infinite, the complex value is infinite independent of the value of the other part. For the same reason, cabs() returns an infinity if its argument has an infinite part and a NaN part.FUTURE DIRECTIONSNone.SEE ALSOcarg() , cimag() , conj() , creal() , the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, <complex.h>COPYRIGHTPortions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information TechnologyPortable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig- inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .--IEEE/The Open Group 2003 CPROJ(P)

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