TGAMMA(3) Linux Programmer's Manual TGAMMA(3)
tgamma, tgammaf, tgammal - true gamma function
double tgamma(double x);
float tgammaf(float x);
long double tgammal(long double x);
Link with -lm.
Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
tgamma(), tgammaf(), tgammal():
_XOPEN_SOURCE >= 600 || _ISOC99_SOURCE || _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L;
or cc -std=c99
The Gamma function is defined by
Gamma(x) = integral from 0 to infinity of t^(x-1) e^-t dt
It is defined for every real number except for nonpositive integers. For nonnegative
integral m one has
Gamma(m+1) = m!
and, more generally, for all x:
Gamma(x+1) = x * Gamma(x)
Furthermore, the following is valid for all values of x outside the poles:
Gamma(x) * Gamma(1 - x) = PI / sin(PI * x)
On success, these functions return Gamma(x).
If x is a NaN, a NaN is returned.
If x is positive infinity, positive infinity is returned.
If x is a negative integer, or is negative infinity, a domain error occurs, and a NaN is
If the result overflows, a range error occurs, and the functions return HUGE_VAL,
HUGE_VALF, or HUGE_VALL, respectively, with the correct mathematical sign.
If the result underflows, a range error occurs, and the functions return 0, with the cor-
rect mathematical sign.
If x is -0 or +0, a pole error occurs, and the functions return HUGE_VAL, HUGE_VALF, or
HUGE_VALL, respectively, with the same sign as the 0.
See math_error(7) for information on how to determine whether an error has occurred when
calling these functions.
The following errors can occur:
Domain error: x is a negative integer, or negative infinity
errno is set to EDOM. An invalid floating-point exception (FE_INVALID) is raised
(but see BUGS).
Pole error: x is +0 or -0
errno is set to ERANGE. A divide-by-zero floating-point exception (FE_DIVBYZERO)
Range error: result overflow
errno is set to ERANGE. An overflow floating-point exception (FE_OVERFLOW) is
glibc also gives the following error which is not specified in C99 or POSIX.1-2001.
Range error: result underflow
An underflow floating-point exception (FE_UNDERFLOW) is raised.
errno is not set for this case.
These functions first appeared in glibc in version 2.1.
This function had to be called "true gamma function" since there is already a function
gamma(3) that returns something else (see gamma(3) for details).
If x is negative infinity, errno is not set (it should be set to EDOM).
In glibc versions 2.3.3 and earlier, an argument of +0 or -0 incorrectly produced a domain
error (errno set to EDOM and an FE_INVALID exception raised), rather than a pole error.
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GNU 2010-09-20 TGAMMA(3)