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EXIT(3)  			    Linux Programmer's Manual				    EXIT(3) 

NAME
       exit - cause normal process termination

SYNOPSIS
       #include <stdlib.h>

       void exit(int status);

DESCRIPTION
       The  exit()  function  causes normal process termination and the value of status & 0377 is
       returned to the parent (see   wait(2) ).

       All functions registered with   atexit(3)  and   on_exit(3)  are called, in the reverse order of
       their  registration.   (It  is  possible  for  one  of these functions to use   atexit(3)  or
         on_exit(3)  to register an additional function to be executed during exit  processing;  the
       new registration is added to the front of the list of functions that remain to be called.)
       If one of these functions does not return (e.g., it calls   _exit(2) , or kills itself with a
       signal),  then  none of the remaining functions is called, and further exit processing (in
       particular, flushing of   stdio(3)  streams) is abandoned.	If a function has been registered
       multiple  times	using    atexit(3)  or   on_exit(3) , then it is called as many times as it was
       registered.

       All open   stdio(3)  streams are  flushed  and  closed.   Files  created  by    tmpfile(3)   are
       removed.

       The  C standard specifies two constants, EXIT_SUCCESS and EXIT_FAILURE, that may be passed
       to exit() to indicate successful or unsuccessful termination, respectively.

RETURN VALUE
       The exit() function does not return.

CONFORMING TO
       SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001, C89, C99.

NOTES
       It is undefined what happens if one  of	the  functions	registered  using    atexit(3)   and
         on_exit(3)   calls either exit() or   longjmp(3) .  Note that a call to   execve(2)  removes reg-
       istrations created using   atexit(3)  and   on_exit(3) .

       The use of EXIT_SUCCESS and EXIT_FAILURE is slightly more portable (to  non-UNIX  environ-
       ments)  than  the use of 0 and some nonzero value like 1 or -1.	In particular, VMS uses a
       different convention.

       BSD has attempted to standardize exit codes; see the file <sysexits.h>.

       After exit(), the exit status must be transmitted to the parent process.  There are  three
       cases.  If the parent has set SA_NOCLDWAIT, or has set the SIGCHLD handler to SIG_IGN, the
       status is discarded.  If the parent was waiting on the child it is notified  of	the  exit
       status.	 In both cases the exiting process dies immediately.  If the parent has not indi-
       cated that it is not interested in the exit  status,  but  is  not  waiting,  the  exiting
       process	turns  into  a	"zombie" process (which is nothing but a container for the single
       byte representing the exit status) so that the parent can learn the exit  status  when  it
       later calls one of the   wait(2)  functions.

       If  the implementation supports the SIGCHLD signal, this signal is sent to the parent.  If
       the parent has set SA_NOCLDWAIT, it is undefined whether a SIGCHLD signal is sent.

       If the process is a session leader and its controlling terminal is the controlling  termi-
       nal  of the session, then each process in the foreground process group of this controlling
       terminal is sent a SIGHUP signal, and the terminal is  disassociated  from  this  session,
       allowing it to be acquired by a new controlling process.

       If the exit of the process causes a process group to become orphaned, and if any member of
       the newly orphaned process group is stopped, then a SIGHUP signal followed  by  a  SIGCONT
       signal will be sent to each process in this process group.  See   setpgid(2)  for an explana-
       tion of orphaned process groups.

SEE ALSO
         _exit(2) ,   setpgid(2) ,   wait(2) ,   atexit(3) ,   on_exit(3) ,   tmpfile(3) 

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.55 of the Linux man-pages project.  A  description  of  the
       project,     and    information	  about    reporting	bugs,	 can	be    found    at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux					    2013-02-14					    EXIT(3)
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