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Linux 2.6 - man page for cmsg_align (linux section 3)

CMSG(3) 			    Linux Programmer's Manual				  CMSG(3)

NAME
       CMSG_ALIGN, CMSG_SPACE, CMSG_NXTHDR, CMSG_FIRSTHDR - access ancillary data

SYNOPSIS
       #include <sys/socket.h>

       struct cmsghdr *CMSG_FIRSTHDR(struct msghdr *msgh);
       struct cmsghdr *CMSG_NXTHDR(struct msghdr *msgh, struct cmsghdr *cmsg);
       size_t CMSG_ALIGN(size_t length);
       size_t CMSG_SPACE(size_t length);
       size_t CMSG_LEN(size_t length);
       unsigned char *CMSG_DATA(struct cmsghdr *cmsg);

       struct cmsghdr {
	   socklen_t cmsg_len;	  /* data byte count, including header */
	   int	     cmsg_level;  /* originating protocol */
	   int	     cmsg_type;   /* protocol-specific type */
	   /* followed by unsigned char cmsg_data[]; */
       };

DESCRIPTION
       These  macros  are used to create and access control messages (also called ancillary data)
       that are not a part of the socket payload.   This  control  information	may  include  the
       interface the packet was received on, various rarely used header fields, an extended error
       description, a set of file descriptors or UNIX credentials.  For  instance,  control  mes-
       sages  can be used to send additional header fields such as IP options.	Ancillary data is
       sent by calling sendmsg(2) and received by calling recvmsg(2).  See their manual pages for
       more information.

       Ancillary  data	is  a  sequence  of  struct  cmsghdr structures with appended data.  This
       sequence should be accessed using only the macros described in this manual page and  never
       directly.   See	the  specific protocol man pages for the available control message types.
       The  maximum   ancillary   buffer   size   allowed   per   socket   can	 be   set   using
       /proc/sys/net/core/optmem_max; see socket(7).

       CMSG_FIRSTHDR()	returns a pointer to the first cmsghdr in the ancillary data buffer asso-
       ciated with the passed msghdr.

       CMSG_NXTHDR() returns the next valid cmsghdr after the passed cmsghdr.	It  returns  NULL
       when there isn't enough space left in the buffer.

       CMSG_ALIGN(), given a length, returns it including the required alignment.  This is a con-
       stant expression.

       CMSG_SPACE() returns the number of bytes an ancillary element with payload of  the  passed
       data length occupies.  This is a constant expression.

       CMSG_DATA() returns a pointer to the data portion of a cmsghdr.

       CMSG_LEN()  returns  the  value	to store in the cmsg_len member of the cmsghdr structure,
       taking into account any necessary alignment.  It takes the data	length	as  an	argument.
       This is a constant expression.

       To  create  ancillary  data, first initialize the msg_controllen member of the msghdr with
       the length of the control message buffer.  Use CMSG_FIRSTHDR() on the msghdr  to  get  the
       first  control message and CMSG_NXTHDR() to get all subsequent ones.  In each control mes-
       sage, initialize cmsg_len (with CMSG_LEN()), the other cmsghdr header fields, and the data
       portion	using CMSG_DATA().  Finally, the msg_controllen field of the msghdr should be set
       to the sum of the CMSG_SPACE() of the length of all control messages in the  buffer.   For
       more information on the msghdr, see recvmsg(2).

       When the control message buffer is too short to store all messages, the MSG_CTRUNC flag is
       set in the msg_flags member of the msghdr.

CONFORMING TO
       This ancillary data model conforms to the POSIX.1g draft, 4.4BSD-Lite, the  IPv6  advanced
       API described in RFC 2292 and the SUSv2.  CMSG_ALIGN() is a Linux extension.

NOTES
       For  portability,  ancillary data should be accessed using only the macros described here.
       CMSG_ALIGN() is a Linux extension and should be not used in portable programs.

       In Linux, CMSG_LEN(), CMSG_DATA(), and CMSG_ALIGN()  are  constant  expressions	(assuming
       their  argument	is constant); this could be used to declare the size of global variables.
       This may be not portable, however.

EXAMPLE
       This code looks for the IP_TTL option in a received ancillary buffer:

	   struct msghdr msgh;
	   struct cmsghdr *cmsg;
	   int *ttlptr;
	   int received_ttl;

	   /* Receive auxiliary data in msgh */
	   for (cmsg = CMSG_FIRSTHDR(&msgh); cmsg != NULL;
		   cmsg = CMSG_NXTHDR(&msgh,cmsg)) {
	       if (cmsg->cmsg_level == IPPROTO_IP
		       && cmsg->cmsg_type == IP_TTL) {
		   ttlptr = (int *) CMSG_DATA(cmsg);
		   received_ttl = *ttlptr;
		   break;
	       }
	   }
	   if (cmsg == NULL) {
	       /*
		* Error: IP_TTL not enabled or small buffer
		* or I/O error.
		*/
	   }

       The code below passes an array of  file	descriptors  over  a  UNIX  domain  socket  using
       SCM_RIGHTS:

	   struct msghdr msg = {0};
	   struct cmsghdr *cmsg;
	   int myfds[NUM_FD]; /* Contains the file descriptors to pass. */
	   char buf[CMSG_SPACE(sizeof myfds)];	/* ancillary data buffer */
	   int *fdptr;

	   msg.msg_control = buf;
	   msg.msg_controllen = sizeof buf;
	   cmsg = CMSG_FIRSTHDR(&msg);
	   cmsg->cmsg_level = SOL_SOCKET;
	   cmsg->cmsg_type = SCM_RIGHTS;
	   cmsg->cmsg_len = CMSG_LEN(sizeof(int) * NUM_FD);
	   /* Initialize the payload: */
	   fdptr = (int *) CMSG_DATA(cmsg);
	   memcpy(fdptr, myfds, NUM_FD * sizeof(int));
	   /* Sum of the length of all control messages in the buffer: */
	   msg.msg_controllen = cmsg->cmsg_len;

SEE ALSO
       recvmsg(2), sendmsg(2)

       RFC 2292

COLOPHON
       This  page  is  part of release 3.55 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the
       project,    and	  information	 about	  reporting    bugs,	can    be    found     at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux					    2008-11-20					  CMSG(3)


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