NICE(2) Linux Programmer's Manual NICE(2)
nice - change process priority
int nice(int inc);
Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
nice(): _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE || _XOPEN_SOURCE
nice() adds inc to the nice value for the calling process. (A higher nice value means a low priority.) Only the superuser may specify a
negative increment, or priority increase. The range for nice values is described in getpriority(2).
On success, the new nice value is returned (but see NOTES below). On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.
EPERM The calling process attempted to increase its priority by supplying a negative inc but has insufficient privileges. Under Linux the
CAP_SYS_NICE capability is required. (But see the discussion of the RLIMIT_NICE resource limit in setrlimit(2).)
SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001. However, the Linux and (g)libc (earlier than glibc 2.2.4) return value is nonstandard, see below. SVr4 docu-
ments an additional EINVAL error code.
SUSv2 and POSIX.1-2001 specify that nice() should return the new nice value. However, the Linux syscall and the nice() library function
provided in older versions of (g)libc (earlier than glibc 2.2.4) return 0 on success. The new nice value can be found using getprior-
Since glibc 2.2.4, nice() is implemented as a library function that calls getpriority(2) to obtain the new nice value to be returned to the
caller. With this implementation, a successful call can legitimately return -1. To reliably detect an error, set errno to 0 before the
call, and check its value when nice() returns -1.
nice(1), fork(2), getpriority(2), setpriority(2), capabilities(7), renice(1)
This page is part of release 3.27 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.
Linux 2007-07-26 NICE(2)
Check Out this Related Man Page
GETPRIORITY(2) Linux Programmer's Manual GETPRIORITY(2)
getpriority, setpriority - get/set program scheduling priority
int getpriority(int which, int who);
int setpriority(int which, int who, int prio);
The scheduling priority of the process, process group, or user, as indicated by which and who is obtained with the getpriority() call and
set with the setpriority() call.
The value which is one of PRIO_PROCESS, PRIO_PGRP, or PRIO_USER, and who is interpreted relative to which (a process identifier for
PRIO_PROCESS, process group identifier for PRIO_PGRP, and a user ID for PRIO_USER). A zero value for who denotes (respectively) the call-
ing process, the process group of the calling process, or the real user ID of the calling process. Prio is a value in the range -20 to 19
(but see the Notes below). The default priority is 0; lower priorities cause more favorable scheduling.
The getpriority() call returns the highest priority (lowest numerical value) enjoyed by any of the specified processes. The setpriority()
call sets the priorities of all of the specified processes to the specified value. Only the superuser may lower priorities.
Since getpriority() can legitimately return the value -1, it is necessary to clear the external variable errno prior to the call, then
check it afterwards to determine if -1 is an error or a legitimate value. The setpriority() call returns 0 if there is no error, or -1 if
EINVAL which was not one of PRIO_PROCESS, PRIO_PGRP, or PRIO_USER.
ESRCH No process was located using the which and who values specified.
In addition to the errors indicated above, setpriority() may fail if:
EACCES The caller attempted to lower a process priority, but did not have the required privilege (on Linux: did not have the CAP_SYS_NICE
capability). Since Linux 2.6.12, this error only occurs if the caller attempts to set a process priority outside the range of the
RLIMIT_NICE soft resource limit of the target process; see getrlimit(2) for details.
EPERM A process was located, but its effective user ID did not match either the effective or the real user ID of the caller, and was not
privileged (on Linux: did not have the CAP_SYS_NICE capability). But see NOTES below.
SVr4, 4.4BSD (these function calls first appeared in 4.2BSD), POSIX.1-2001.
A child created by fork(2) inherits its parent's nice value. The nice value is preserved across execve(2).
The degree to which their relative nice value affects the scheduling of processes varies across Unix systems, and, on Linux, across kernel
versions. Starting with kernel 2.6.23, Linux adopted an algorithm that causes relative differences in nice values to have a much stronger
effect. This causes very low nice values (+19) to truly provide little CPU to a process whenever there is any other higher priority load
on the system, and makes high nice values (-20) deliver most of the CPU to applications that require it (e.g., some audio applications).
The details on the condition for EPERM depend on the system. The above description is what POSIX.1-2001 says, and seems to be followed on
all System V-like systems. Linux kernels before 2.6.12 required the real or effective user ID of the caller to match the real user of the
process who (instead of its effective user ID). Linux 2.6.12 and later require the effective user ID of the caller to match the real or
effective user ID of the process who. All BSD-like systems (SunOS 4.1.3, Ultrix 4.2, 4.3BSD, FreeBSD 4.3, OpenBSD-2.5, ...) behave in the
same manner as Linux 2.6.12 and later.
The actual priority range varies between kernel versions. Linux before 1.3.36 had -infinity..15. Since kernel 1.3.43 Linux has the range
-20..19. Within the kernel, nice values are actually represented using the corresponding range 40..1 (since negative numbers are error
codes) and these are the values employed by the setpriority() and getpriority() system calls. The glibc wrapper functions for these system
calls handle the translations between the user-land and kernel representations of the nice value according to the formula
unice = 20 - knice.
On some systems, the range of nice values is -20..20.
Including <sys/time.h> is not required these days, but increases portability. (Indeed, <sys/resource.h> defines the rusage structure with
fields of type struct timeval defined in <sys/time.h>.)
nice(1), fork(2), capabilities(7), renice(1)
Documentation/scheduler/sched-nice-design.txt in the kernel source tree (since Linux 2.6.23).
This page is part of release 3.25 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.
Linux 2008-05-29 GETPRIORITY(2)