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IEEE 802.11 is part of the IEEE 802 set of LAN protocols, and specifies the set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) protocols for implementing virtual local area network (VLAN) Wi-Fi computer communication in various frequencies.
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modify_ldt(2) [linux man page]

MODIFY_LDT(2)						     Linux Programmer's Manual						     MODIFY_LDT(2)

NAME
modify_ldt - get or set ldt SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/types.h> int modify_ldt(int func, void *ptr, unsigned long bytecount); DESCRIPTION
modify_ldt() reads or writes the local descriptor table (ldt) for a process. The ldt is a per-process memory management table used by the i386 processor. For more information on this table, see an Intel 386 processor handbook. When func is 0, modify_ldt() reads the ldt into the memory pointed to by ptr. The number of bytes read is the smaller of bytecount and the actual size of the ldt. When func is 1, modify_ldt() modifies one ldt entry. ptr points to a user_desc structure and bytecount must equal the size of this struc- ture. The user_desc structure is defined in <asm/ldt.h> as: struct user_desc { unsigned int entry_number; unsigned long base_addr; unsigned int limit; unsigned int seg_32bit:1; unsigned int contents:2; unsigned int read_exec_only:1; unsigned int limit_in_pages:1; unsigned int seg_not_present:1; unsigned int useable:1; }; In Linux 2.4 and earlier, this structure was named modify_ldt_ldt_s. RETURN VALUE
On success, modify_ldt() returns either the actual number of bytes read (for reading) or 0 (for writing). On failure, modify_ldt() returns -1 and sets errno to indicate the error. ERRORS
EFAULT ptr points outside the address space. EINVAL ptr is 0, or func is 1 and bytecount is not equal to the size of the structure modify_ldt_ldt_s, or func is 1 and the new ldt entry has invalid values. ENOSYS func is neither 0 nor 1. CONFORMING TO
This call is Linux-specific and should not be used in programs intended to be portable. NOTES
Glibc does not provide a wrapper for this system call; call it using syscall(2). SEE ALSO
vm86(2) COLOPHON
This page is part of release 3.27 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/. Linux 2007-06-01 MODIFY_LDT(2)

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MODIFY_LDT(2)						     Linux Programmer's Manual						     MODIFY_LDT(2)

NAME
modify_ldt - get or set a per-process LDT entry SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/types.h> int modify_ldt(int func, void *ptr, unsigned long bytecount); Note: There is no glibc wrapper for this system call; see NOTES. DESCRIPTION
modify_ldt() reads or writes the local descriptor table (LDT) for a process. The LDT is an array of segment descriptors that can be refer- enced by user code. Linux allows processes to configure a per-process (actually per-mm) LDT. For more information about the LDT, see the Intel Software Developer's Manual or the AMD Architecture Programming Manual. When func is 0, modify_ldt() reads the LDT into the memory pointed to by ptr. The number of bytes read is the smaller of bytecount and the actual size of the LDT, although the kernel may act as though the LDT is padded with additional trailing zero bytes. On success, mod- ify_ldt() will return the number of bytes read. When func is 1 or 0x11, modify_ldt() modifies the LDT entry indicated by ptr->entry_number. ptr points to a user_desc structure and byte- count must equal the size of this structure. The user_desc structure is defined in <asm/ldt.h> as: struct user_desc { unsigned int entry_number; unsigned long base_addr; unsigned int limit; unsigned int seg_32bit:1; unsigned int contents:2; unsigned int read_exec_only:1; unsigned int limit_in_pages:1; unsigned int seg_not_present:1; unsigned int useable:1; }; In Linux 2.4 and earlier, this structure was named modify_ldt_ldt_s. The contents field is the segment type (data, expand-down data, non-conforming code, or conforming code). The other fields match their descriptions in the CPU manual, although modify_ldt() cannot set the hardware-defined "accessed" bit described in the CPU manual. A user_desc is considered "empty" if read_exec_only and seg_not_present are set to 1 and all of the other fields are 0. An LDT entry can be cleared by setting it to an "empty" user_desc or, if func is 1, by setting both base and limit to 0. A conforming code segment (i.e., one with contents==3) will be rejected if func is 1 or if seg_not_present is 0. When func is 2, modify_ldt() will read zeros. This appears to be a leftover from Linux 2.4. RETURN VALUE
On success, modify_ldt() returns either the actual number of bytes read (for reading) or 0 (for writing). On failure, modify_ldt() returns -1 and sets errno to indicate the error. ERRORS
EFAULT ptr points outside the address space. EINVAL ptr is 0, or func is 1 and bytecount is not equal to the size of the structure user_desc, or func is 1 or 0x11 and the new LDT entry has invalid values. ENOSYS func is neither 0, 1, 2, nor 0x11. CONFORMING TO
This call is Linux-specific and should not be used in programs intended to be portable. NOTES
Glibc does not provide a wrapper for this system call; call it using syscall(2). modify_ldt() should not be used for thread-local storage, as it slows down context switches and only supports a limited number of threads. Threading libraries should use set_thread_area(2) or arch_prctl(2) instead, except on extremely old kernels that do not support those sys- tem calls. The normal use for modify_ldt() is to run legacy 16-bit or segmented 32-bit code. Not all kernels allow 16-bit segments to be installed, however. Even on 64-bit kernels, modify_ldt() cannot be used to create a long mode (i.e., 64-bit) code segment. The undocumented field "lm" in user_desc is not useful, and, despite its name, does not result in a long mode segment. BUGS
On 64-bit kernels before Linux 3.19, setting the "lm" bit in user_desc prevents the descriptor from being considered empty. Keep in mind that the "lm" bit does not exist in the 32-bit headers, but these buggy kernels will still notice the bit even when set in a 32-bit process. SEE ALSO
arch_prctl(2), set_thread_area(2), vm86(2) COLOPHON
This page is part of release 4.15 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be found at https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/. Linux 2017-09-15 MODIFY_LDT(2)

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