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Linux 2.6 - man page for strings (linux section 1posix)

STRINGS(P)			    POSIX Programmer's Manual			       STRINGS(P)

NAME
       strings - find printable strings in files

SYNOPSIS
       strings [-a][-t format][-n number][file...]

DESCRIPTION
       The  strings  utility  shall  look  for printable strings in regular files and shall write
       those strings to standard output. A printable string is any sequence of four (by  default)
       or more printable characters terminated by a <newline> or NUL character. Additional imple-
       mentation-defined strings may be written; see localedef.

OPTIONS
       The strings utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,
       Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -a     Scan  files in their entirety. If -a is not specified, it is implementation-defined
	      what portion of each file is scanned for strings.

       -n  number
	      Specify the minimum string length, where the number argument is a positive  decimal
	      integer. The default shall be 4.

       -t  format
	      Write  each string preceded by its byte offset from the start of the file. The for-
	      mat shall be dependent on the single character used as the format option-argument:

       d
	      The offset shall be written in decimal.

       o
	      The offset shall be written in octal.

       x
	      The offset shall be written in hexadecimal.

OPERANDS
       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   A pathname of a regular file to be used as input. If no file operand is  specified,
	      the strings utility shall read from the standard input.

STDIN
       See the INPUT FILES section.

INPUT FILES
       The  input  files  named  by  the utility arguments or the standard input shall be regular
       files of any format.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of strings:

       LANG   Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that  are	unset  or
	      null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Inter-
	      nationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used
	      to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other interna-
	      tionalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE
	      Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text  data  as
	      characters  (for	example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in argu-
	      ments and input files) and to identify printable strings.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diag-
	      nostic messages written to standard error.

       NLSPATH
	      Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       Strings found shall be written to the standard output, one per line.

       When the -t option is not specified, the format of the output shall be:

	      "%s", <string>

       With the -t o option, the format of the output shall be:

	      "%o %s", <byte offset>, <string>

       With the -t x option, the format of the output shall be:

	      "%x %s", <byte offset>, <string>

       With the -t d option, the format of the output shall be:

	      "%d %s", <byte offset>, <string>

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

	0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       By default the data area (as opposed to the text, "bss", or header areas) of a binary exe-
       cutable file is scanned.  Implementations document which areas are scanned.

       Some historical implementations do not require NUL or <newline> terminators for strings to
       permit  those  languages  that do not use NUL as a string terminator to have their strings
       written.

EXAMPLES
       None.

RATIONALE
       Apart from rationalizing the option syntax and slight difficulties with	object	and  exe-
       cutable	binary	files,	strings is specified to match historical practice closely. The -a
       and -n options were introduced to replace the non-conforming - and - number options.

       The -o option historically means different things on different implementations.	Some  use
       it  to  mean  "	offset in decimal", while others use it as " offset in octal". Instead of
       trying to decide which way would be least objectionable, the -t option was added.  It  was
       originally named -O to mean "offset", but was changed to -t to be consistent with od.

       The  ISO C  standard  function  isprint() is restricted to a domain of unsigned char. This
       volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 requires implementations to write strings as defined by the
       current locale.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       localedef , nm

COPYRIGHT
       Portions  of  this  text  are  reprinted  and  reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology  --  Portable	Operating  System
       Interface  (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by
       the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and  The  Open  Group.  In  the
       event  of  any  discrepancy  between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
       inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group			       2003				       STRINGS(P)


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