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PWD(P)				    POSIX Programmer's Manual				   PWD(P)

NAME
       pwd - return working directory name

SYNOPSIS
       pwd [-L | -P ]

DESCRIPTION
       The pwd utility shall write to standard output an absolute pathname of the current working
       directory, which does not contain the filenames dot or dot-dot.

OPTIONS
       The pwd utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Sec-
       tion 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported by the implementation:

       -L     If the PWD environment variable contains an absolute pathname of the current direc-
	      tory that does not contain the filenames dot or dot-dot, pwd shall write this path-
	      name to standard output. Otherwise, the -L option shall behave as the -P option.

       -P     The  absolute  pathname written shall not contain filenames that, in the context of
	      the pathname, refer to files of type symbolic link.

       If both -L and -P are specified, the last one shall apply.  If neither -L nor -P is speci-
       fied, the pwd utility shall behave as if -L had been specified.

OPERANDS
       None.

STDIN
       Not used.

INPUT FILES
       None.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of pwd:

       LANG   Provide  a  default  value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
	      null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Inter-
	      nationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used
	      to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the  other  interna-
	      tionalization variables.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diag-
	      nostic messages written to standard error.

       NLSPATH
	      Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .

       PWD    If the -P option is in effect, this variable shall be set to an  absolute  pathname
	      of  the current working directory that does not contain any components that specify
	      symbolic links, does not contain any components that are dot, and does not  contain
	      any  components that are dot-dot. If an application sets or unsets the value of PWD
	      , the behavior of pwd is unspecified.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       The pwd utility output is an absolute pathname of the current working directory:

	      "%s\n", <directory pathname>

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

	0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       If an error is detected, output shall not be written to standard output, a diagnostic mes-
       sage shall be written to standard error, and the exit status is not zero.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

EXAMPLES
       None.

RATIONALE
       Some implementations have historically provided pwd as a shell special built-in command.

       In  most  utilities, if an error occurs, partial output may be written to standard output.
       This does not happen in historical implementations of pwd. Because pwd is frequently  used
       in  historical  shell  scripts  without checking the exit status, it is important that the
       historical behavior is required	here;  therefore,  the	CONSEQUENCES  OF  ERRORS  section
       specifically disallows any partial output being written to standard output.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       cd , the System Interfaces volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, getcwd()

COPYRIGHT
       Portions  of  this  text  are  reprinted  and  reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology  --  Portable	Operating  System
       Interface  (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by
       the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and  The  Open  Group.  In  the
       event  of  any  discrepancy  between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
       inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group			       2003					   PWD(P)
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