PWD(P) POSIX Programmer's Manual PWD(P)
pwd - return working directory name
pwd [-L | -P ]
The pwd utility shall write to standard output an absolute pathname of the current working
directory, which does not contain the filenames dot or dot-dot.
The pwd utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Sec-
tion 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.
The following options shall be supported by the implementation:
-L If the PWD environment variable contains an absolute pathname of the current direc-
tory that does not contain the filenames dot or dot-dot, pwd shall write this path-
name to standard output. Otherwise, the -L option shall behave as the -P option.
-P The absolute pathname written shall not contain filenames that, in the context of
the pathname, refer to files of type symbolic link.
If both -L and -P are specified, the last one shall apply. If neither -L nor -P is speci-
fied, the pwd utility shall behave as if -L had been specified.
The following environment variables shall affect the execution of pwd:
LANG Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Inter-
nationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used
to determine the values of locale categories.)
LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other interna-
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diag-
nostic messages written to standard error.
Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .
PWD If the -P option is in effect, this variable shall be set to an absolute pathname
of the current working directory that does not contain any components that specify
symbolic links, does not contain any components that are dot, and does not contain
any components that are dot-dot. If an application sets or unsets the value of PWD
, the behavior of pwd is unspecified.
The pwd utility output is an absolute pathname of the current working directory:
"%s\n", <directory pathname>
The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.
The following exit values shall be returned:
0 Successful completion.
>0 An error occurred.
CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
If an error is detected, output shall not be written to standard output, a diagnostic mes-
sage shall be written to standard error, and the exit status is not zero.
The following sections are informative.
Some implementations have historically provided pwd as a shell special built-in command.
In most utilities, if an error occurs, partial output may be written to standard output.
This does not happen in historical implementations of pwd. Because pwd is frequently used
in historical shell scripts without checking the exit status, it is important that the
historical behavior is required here; therefore, the CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS section
specifically disallows any partial output being written to standard output.
cd , the System Interfaces volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, getcwd()
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System
Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by
the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group
Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .
IEEE/The Open Group 2003 PWD(P)