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PR(P)				    POSIX Programmer's Manual				    PR(P)

NAME
       pr - print files

SYNOPSIS
       pr [+page][-column][-adFmrt][-e[char][ gap]][-h header][-i[char][gap]]

	       [-l lines][-n[char][width]][-o offset][-s[char]][-w width][-fp]
	       [file...]

DESCRIPTION
       The pr utility is a printing and pagination filter. If multiple input files are specified,
       each shall be read, formatted, and written to standard output. By default, the input shall
       be separated into 66-line pages, each with:

	* A 5-line header that includes the page number, date, time, and the pathname of the file

	* A 5-line trailer consisting of blank lines

       If  standard  output  is associated with a terminal, diagnostic messages shall be deferred
       until the pr utility has completed processing.

       When options specifying multi-column output are specified, output text columns shall be of
       equal  width;  input  lines  that  do  not  fit	into a text column shall be truncated. By
       default, text columns shall be separated with at least one <blank>.

OPTIONS
       The pr utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Sec-
       tion  12.2,  Utility  Syntax Guidelines, except that: the page option has a '+' delimiter;
       page and column can be multi-digit numbers; some of the option-arguments are optional; and
       some  of the option-arguments cannot be specified as separate arguments from the preceding
       option letter. In particular, the -s option does not allow the option letter to	be  sepa-
       rated  from  its  argument, and the options -e, -i, and -n require that both arguments, if
       present, not be separated from the option letter.

       The following options shall be supported. In the following  option  descriptions,  column,
       lines,  offset, page, and width are positive decimal integers; gap is a non-negative deci-
       mal integer.

       +page  Begin output at page number page of the formatted input.

       -column
	      Produce multi-column output that is arranged in column columns (the  default  shall
	      be  1)  and  is written down each column in the order in which the text is received
	      from the input file. This option should not be used with -m. The options -e and  -i
	      shall  be assumed for multiple text-column output.  Whether or not text columns are
	      produced with identical vertical lengths is unspecified, but a  text  column  shall
	      never exceed the length of the page (see the -l option). When used with -t, use the
	      minimum number of lines to write the output.

       -a     Modify the effect of the - column option so that the columns are filled across  the
	      page  in	a  round-robin order (for example, when column is 2, the first input line
	      heads column 1, the second heads column 2, the third is the second line  in  column
	      1, and so on).

       -d     Produce  output  that  is  double-spaced; append an extra <newline> following every
	      <newline> found in the input.

       -e[char][gap]

	      Expand each input <tab> to the next greater column position specified by	the  for-
	      mula  n*	gap+1,	where n is an integer > 0. If gap is zero or is omitted, it shall
	      default to 8. All <tab>s in the input shall be expanded into the appropriate number
	      of  <space>s.  If  any non-digit character, char, is specified, it shall be used as
	      the input <tab>.

       -f     Use a <form-feed> for new pages, instead	of  the  default  behavior  that  uses	a
	      sequence	of <newline>s. Pause before beginning the first page if the standard out-
	      put is associated with a terminal.

       -F     Use a <form-feed> for new pages, instead	of  the  default  behavior  that  uses	a
	      sequence of <newline>s.

       -h  header
	      Use  the	string	header	to  replace  the contents of the file operand in the page
	      header.

       -i[char][gap]
	      In output, replace multiple <space>s with <tab>s	wherever  two  or  more  adjacent
	      <space>s	reach  column  positions gap+1, 2* gap+1, 3* gap+1, and so on.	If gap is
	      zero or is omitted, default tab settings at every eighth column position	shall  be
	      assumed.	If  any  non-digit character, char, is specified, it shall be used as the
	      output <tab>.

       -l  lines
	      Override the 66-line default and reset the page length to lines.	If lines  is  not
	      greater than the sum of both the header and trailer depths (in lines), the pr util-
	      ity shall suppress both the header and trailer, as if the -t option were in effect.

       -m     Merge files. Standard output shall be formatted so the pr utility writes	one  line
	      from each file specified by a file operand, side by side into text columns of equal
	      fixed widths, in terms of the number of column  positions.   Implementations  shall
	      support merging of at least nine file operands.

       -n[char][width]

	      Provide width-digit line numbering (default for width shall be 5). The number shall
	      occupy the first width column positions of each text column of  default  output  or
	      each  line  of  -m  output. If char (any non-digit character) is given, it shall be
	      appended to the line number to separate it from whatever follows (default for  char
	      is a <tab>).

       -o  offset
	      Each  line  of output shall be preceded by offset <space>s. If the -o option is not
	      specified, the default offset shall be zero. The space taken is in addition to  the
	      output line width (see the -w option below).

       -p     Pause before beginning each page if the standard output is directed to a terminal (
	      pr shall write an <alert> to standard error and wait for a <carriage-return> to  be
	      read on /dev/tty).

       -r     Write no diagnostic reports on failure to open files.

       -s[char]
	      Separate	text  columns  by the single character char instead of by the appropriate
	      number of <space>s (default for char shall be <tab>).

       -t     Write neither the five-line identifying header nor the  five-line  trailer  usually
	      supplied for each page. Quit writing after the last line of each file without spac-
	      ing to the end of the page.

       -w  width
	      Set the width of the line to width column positions for multiple text-column output
	      only.  If  the  -w  option is not specified and the -s option is not specified, the
	      default width shall be 72. If the -w option is not specified and the -s  option  is
	      specified, the default width shall be 512.

       For single column output, input lines shall not be truncated.

OPERANDS
       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   A pathname of a file to be written. If no file operands are specified, or if a file
	      operand is '-' , the standard input shall be used.

STDIN
       The standard input shall be used only if no file operands are specified, or if a file  op-
       erand is '-' .  See the INPUT FILES section.

INPUT FILES
       The input files shall be text files.

       The file /dev/tty shall be used to read responses required by the -p option.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of pr:

       LANG   Provide  a  default  value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
	      null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Inter-
	      nationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used
	      to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the  other  interna-
	      tionalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE
	      Determine  the  locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as
	      characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters	in  argu-
	      ments  and  input  files)  and which characters are defined as printable (character
	      class print). Non-printable characters are still written to  standard  output,  but
	      are not counted for the purpose for column-width and line-length calculations.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diag-
	      nostic messages written to standard error.

       LC_TIME
	      Determine the format of the date and time for use in writing header lines.

       NLSPATH
	      Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .

       TZ     Determine the timezone used to calculate date and time strings  written  in  header
	      lines. If TZ is unset or null, an unspecified default timezone shall be used.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       If  pr  receives  an interrupt while writing to a terminal, it shall flush all accumulated
       error messages to the screen before terminating.

STDOUT
       The pr utility output shall be a paginated version of the original file (or  files).  This
       pagination shall be accomplished using either <form-feed>s or a sequence of <newline>s, as
       controlled by the -F    or -f option. Page headers shall be generated unless the -t option
       is specified. The page headers shall be of the form:

	      "\n\n%s %s Page %d\n\n\n", <output of date>, <file>, <page number>

       In  the	POSIX  locale, the <output of date> field, representing the date and time of last
       modification of the input file (or the current date and time if the input file is standard
       input),	shall  be equivalent to the output of the following command as it would appear if
       executed at the given time:

	      date "+%b %e %H:%M %Y"

       without the trailing <newline>, if the page being written is from standard input.  If  the
       page  being written is not from standard input, in the POSIX locale, the same format shall
       be used, but the time used shall be the modification time of  the  file	corresponding  to
       file instead of the current time. When the LC_TIME locale category is not set to the POSIX
       locale, a different format and order of presentation of this field may be used.

       If the standard input is used instead of  a  file  operand,  the  <file>  field	shall  be
       replaced by a null string.

       If the -h option is specified, the <file> field shall be replaced by the header argument.

STDERR
       The  standard  error  shall  be used for diagnostic messages and for alerting the terminal
       when -p is specified.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

	0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

EXAMPLES
	1. Print a numbered list of all files in the current directory:

	   ls -a | pr -n -h "Files in $(pwd)."

	2. Print file1 and file2 as a double-spaced, three-column listing headed by "file list'':

	   pr -3d -h "file list" file1 file2

	3. Write file1 on file2, expanding tabs to columns 10, 19, 28, ...:

	   pr -e9 -t <file1 >file2

RATIONALE
       This utility is one of those that does not follow the Utility Syntax Guidelines because of
       its  historical	origins. The standard developers could have added new options that obeyed
       the guidelines (and marked the old options obsolescent) or devised an entirely  new  util-
       ity; there are examples of both actions in this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001. Because of
       its widespread use by historical applications, the standard developers decided  to  exempt
       this version of pr from many of the guidelines.

       Implementations	are required to accept option-arguments to the -h, -l, -o, and -w options
       whether presented as part of the same argument or as a separate argument to  pr,  as  sug-
       gested  by the Utility Syntax Guidelines. The -n and -s options, however, are specified as
       in historical practice because they are frequently specified without their optional  argu-
       ments. If a <blank> were allowed before the option-argument in these cases, a file operand
       could mistakenly be interpreted as an option-argument in historical applications.

       The text about the minimum number of lines in multi-column output was included  to  ensure
       that a best effort is made in balancing the length of the columns. There are known histor-
       ical implementations in which, for example, 60-line files are listed by pr -2 as one  col-
       umn  of	56  lines and a second of 4. Although this is not a problem when a full page with
       headers and trailers is produced, it would be relatively useless when used with -t.

       Historical implementations of the pr utility have differed in the action taken for the  -f
       option. BSD uses it as described here for the -F option; System V uses it to change trail-
       ing <newline>s on each page to a <form-feed> and, if standard  output  is  a  TTY  device,
       sends  an  <alert> to standard error and reads a line from /dev/tty before the first page.
       There were strong arguments from both sides of this issue concerning  historical  practice
       and  as a result the -F option was added. XSI-conformant systems support the System V his-
       torical actions for the -f option.

       The <output of date> field in the -l format is specified only for  the  POSIX  locale.  As
       noted,  the  format  can  be different in other locales. No mechanism for defining this is
       present in this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, as the appropriate vehicle  is  a  message
       catalog; that is, the format should be specified as a "message".

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       expand , lp

COPYRIGHT
       Portions  of  this  text  are  reprinted  and  reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology  --  Portable	Operating  System
       Interface  (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by
       the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and  The  Open  Group.  In  the
       event  of  any  discrepancy  between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
       inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group			       2003					    PR(P)
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