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Linux 2.6 - man page for nl (linux section 1posix)

NL(P)				    POSIX Programmer's Manual				    NL(P)

NAME
       nl - line numbering filter

SYNOPSIS
       nl [-p][-b type][-d delim][-f type][-h type][-i incr][-l num][-n format]
	       [-s sep][-v startnum][-w width][file]

DESCRIPTION
       The  nl	utility  shall read lines from the named file or the standard input if no file is
       named and shall reproduce the lines to standard output. Lines shall  be	numbered  on  the
       left.  Additional  functionality may be provided in accordance with the command options in
       effect.

       The nl utility views the text it reads in terms of logical pages.  Line numbering shall be
       reset  at the start of each logical page. A logical page consists of a header, a body, and
       a footer section. Empty sections are valid. Different line numbering options are  indepen-
       dently  available  for  header,	body, and footer (for example, no numbering of header and
       footer lines while numbering blank lines only in the body).

       The starts of logical page sections shall be signaled by input  lines  containing  nothing
       but the following delimiter characters:

					   Line     Start of
					   \:\:\:   Header
					   \:\:     Body
					   \:	    Footer

       Unless  otherwise  specified,  nl  shall assume the text being read is in a single logical
       page body.

OPTIONS
       The nl utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Sec-
       tion 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.  Only one file can be named.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -b  type
	      Specify which logical page body lines shall be numbered. Recognized types and their
	      meaning are:

       a
	      Number all lines.

       t
	      Number only non-empty lines.

       n
	      No line numbering.

       pstring
	      Number only lines that contain the basic regular expression specified in string.

       The default type for logical page body shall be t (text lines numbered).

       -d  delim
	      Specify the delimiter characters that indicate the start of a logical page section.
	      These can be changed from the default characters "\:" to two user-specified charac-
	      ters. If only one character is entered,  the  second  character  shall  remain  the
	      default character ':' .

       -f  type
	      Specify  the  same as b type except for footer. The default for logical page footer
	      shall be n (no lines numbered).

       -h  type
	      Specify the same as b type except for header. The default  type  for  logical  page
	      header shall be n (no lines numbered).

       -i  incr
	      Specify the increment value used to number logical page lines. The default shall be
	      1.

       -l  num
	      Specify the number of blank lines to  be	considered  as	one.  For  example,  -l 2
	      results  in  only the second adjacent blank line being numbered (if the appropriate
	      -h a, -b a, or -f a option is set). The default shall be 1.

       -n  format
	      Specify the line numbering format. Recognized values are: ln, left justified, lead-
	      ing zeros suppressed; rn, right justified, leading zeros suppressed; rz, right jus-
	      tified, leading zeros kept. The default format shall be rn (right justified).

       -p     Specify that numbering should not be restarted at logical page delimiters.

       -s  sep
	      Specify the characters used in separating the line  number  and  the  corresponding
	      text line. The default sep shall be a <tab>.

       -v  startnum
	      Specify  the  initial value used to number logical page lines. The default shall be
	      1.

       -w  width
	      Specify the number of characters to be used for the line number. The default  width
	      shall be 6.

OPERANDS
       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   A pathname of a text file to be line-numbered.

STDIN
       The standard input is a text file that is used if no file operand is given.

INPUT FILES
       The input file named by the file operand is a text file.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of nl:

       LANG   Provide  a  default  value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
	      null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Inter-
	      nationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used
	      to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the  other  interna-
	      tionalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE

	      Determine  the  locale  for the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes, and multi-
	      character collating elements within regular expressions.

       LC_CTYPE
	      Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text  data  as
	      characters  (for	example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in argu-
	      ments and input files), the behavior of character classes  within  regular  expres-
	      sions,  and  for	deciding  which  characters are in character class graph (for the
	      -b t, -f t, and -h t options).

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diag-
	      nostic messages written to standard error.

       NLSPATH
	      Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       The standard output shall be a text file in the following format:

	      "%s%s%s", <line number>, <separator>, <input line>

       where <line number> is one of the following numeric formats:

       %6d    When the rn format is used (the default; see -n).

       %06d   When the rz format is used.

       %-6d   When the ln format is used.

       <empty>
	      When line numbers are suppressed for a portion of the page; the <separator> is also
	      suppressed.

       In the preceding list, the number 6 is the default width; the -w option	can  change  this
       value.

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

	0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       In  using the -d delim option, care should be taken to escape characters that have special
       meaning to the command interpreter.

EXAMPLES
       The command:

	      nl -v 10 -i 10 -d \!+ file1

       numbers file1 starting at line number 10 with an increment of 10. The logical page  delim-
       iter is "!+" . Note that the '!' has to be escaped when using csh as a command interpreter
       because of its history substitution syntax. For ksh and sh the escape  is  not  necessary,
       but does not do any harm.

RATIONALE
       None.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       pr

COPYRIGHT
       Portions  of  this  text  are  reprinted  and  reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology  --  Portable	Operating  System
       Interface  (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by
       the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and  The  Open  Group.  In  the
       event  of  any  discrepancy  between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
       inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group			       2003					    NL(P)


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