NL(P) POSIX Programmer's Manual NL(P)
nl - line numbering filter
nl [-p][-b type][-d delim][-f type][-h type][-i incr][-l num][-n format]
[-s sep][-v startnum][-w width][file]
The nl utility shall read lines from the named file or the standard input if no file is
named and shall reproduce the lines to standard output. Lines shall be numbered on the
left. Additional functionality may be provided in accordance with the command options in
The nl utility views the text it reads in terms of logical pages. Line numbering shall be
reset at the start of each logical page. A logical page consists of a header, a body, and
a footer section. Empty sections are valid. Different line numbering options are indepen-
dently available for header, body, and footer (for example, no numbering of header and
footer lines while numbering blank lines only in the body).
The starts of logical page sections shall be signaled by input lines containing nothing
but the following delimiter characters:
Line Start of
Unless otherwise specified, nl shall assume the text being read is in a single logical
The nl utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Sec-
tion 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines. Only one file can be named.
The following options shall be supported:
Specify which logical page body lines shall be numbered. Recognized types and their
Number all lines.
Number only non-empty lines.
No line numbering.
Number only lines that contain the basic regular expression specified in string.
The default type for logical page body shall be t (text lines numbered).
Specify the delimiter characters that indicate the start of a logical page section.
These can be changed from the default characters "\:" to two user-specified charac-
ters. If only one character is entered, the second character shall remain the
default character ':' .
Specify the same as b type except for footer. The default for logical page footer
shall be n (no lines numbered).
Specify the same as b type except for header. The default type for logical page
header shall be n (no lines numbered).
Specify the increment value used to number logical page lines. The default shall be
Specify the number of blank lines to be considered as one. For example, -l 2
results in only the second adjacent blank line being numbered (if the appropriate
-h a, -b a, or -f a option is set). The default shall be 1.
Specify the line numbering format. Recognized values are: ln, left justified, lead-
ing zeros suppressed; rn, right justified, leading zeros suppressed; rz, right jus-
tified, leading zeros kept. The default format shall be rn (right justified).
-p Specify that numbering should not be restarted at logical page delimiters.
Specify the characters used in separating the line number and the corresponding
text line. The default sep shall be a <tab>.
Specify the initial value used to number logical page lines. The default shall be
Specify the number of characters to be used for the line number. The default width
shall be 6.
The following operand shall be supported:
file A pathname of a text file to be line-numbered.
The standard input is a text file that is used if no file operand is given.
The input file named by the file operand is a text file.
The following environment variables shall affect the execution of nl:
LANG Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Inter-
nationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used
to determine the values of locale categories.)
LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other interna-
Determine the locale for the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes, and multi-
character collating elements within regular expressions.
Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as
characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in argu-
ments and input files), the behavior of character classes within regular expres-
sions, and for deciding which characters are in character class graph (for the
-b t, -f t, and -h t options).
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diag-
nostic messages written to standard error.
Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .
The standard output shall be a text file in the following format:
"%s%s%s", <line number>, <separator>, <input line>
where <line number> is one of the following numeric formats:
%6d When the rn format is used (the default; see -n).
%06d When the rz format is used.
%-6d When the ln format is used.
When line numbers are suppressed for a portion of the page; the <separator> is also
In the preceding list, the number 6 is the default width; the -w option can change this
The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.
The following exit values shall be returned:
0 Successful completion.
>0 An error occurred.
CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
The following sections are informative.
In using the -d delim option, care should be taken to escape characters that have special
meaning to the command interpreter.
nl -v 10 -i 10 -d \!+ file1
numbers file1 starting at line number 10 with an increment of 10. The logical page delim-
iter is "!+" . Note that the '!' has to be escaped when using csh as a command interpreter
because of its history substitution syntax. For ksh and sh the escape is not necessary,
but does not do any harm.
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System
Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by
the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group
Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .
IEEE/The Open Group 2003 NL(P)