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Linux 2.6 - man page for iconv (linux section 1posix)

ICONV(P)			    POSIX Programmer's Manual				 ICONV(P)

NAME
       iconv - codeset conversion

SYNOPSIS
       iconv [-cs] -f frommap -t tomap [file ...]

       iconv -f fromcode [-cs] [-t tocode [file ...]

       iconv -t tocode [-cs] [-f fromcode] [file ...]

       iconv -l

DESCRIPTION
       The  iconv  utility  shall  convert the encoding of characters in file from one codeset to
       another and write the results to standard output.

       When the options indicate that charmap  files  are  used  to  specify  the  codesets  (see
       OPTIONS), the codeset conversion shall be accomplished by performing a logical join on the
       symbolic character names in the two charmaps. The implementation need not support the  use
       of  charmap  files for codeset conversion unless the POSIX2_LOCALEDEF symbol is defined on
       the system.

OPTIONS
       The iconv utility shall conform to the Base Definitions	volume	of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,
       Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -c     Omit any characters that are invalid in the codeset of the input file from the out-
	      put. When -c is not used, the results of encountering  invalid  characters  in  the
	      input stream (either those that are not characters in the codeset of the input file
	      or that have no corresponding character in the codeset of the output file) shall be
	      specified  in  the  system  documentation.  The presence or absence of -c shall not
	      affect the exit status of iconv.

       -f  fromcodeset

	      Identify the codeset of the input file. The implementation shall recognize the fol-
	      lowing two forms of the fromcodeset option-argument:

       fromcode
	      The  fromcode  option-argument  must  not  contain  a slash character.  It shall be
	      interpreted as the name of one of the codeset descriptions provided by  the  imple-
	      mentation  in  an  unspecified format. Valid values of fromcode are implementation-
	      defined.

       frommap
	      The frommap option-argument must contain a slash character.   It	shall  be  inter-
	      preted  as the pathname of a charmap file as defined in the Base Definitions volume
	      of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 6.4, Character Set Description File. If the  path-
	      name does not represent a valid, readable charmap file, the results are undefined.

       If this option is omitted, the codeset of the current locale shall be used.

       -l     Write all supported fromcode and tocode values to standard output in an unspecified
	      format.

       -s     Suppress any messages written to standard error concerning invalid characters. When
	      -s  is not used, the results of encountering invalid characters in the input stream
	      (either those that are not valid characters in the codeset of  the  input  file  or
	      that  have  no  corresponding character in the codeset of the output file) shall be
	      specified in the system documentation. The presence or  absence  of  -s  shall  not
	      affect the exit status of iconv.

       -t  tocodeset
	      Identify	the codeset to be used for the output file. The implementation shall rec-
	      ognize the following two forms of the tocodeset option-argument:

       tocode
	      The semantics shall be equivalent to the -f fromcode option.

       tomap
	      The semantics shall be equivalent to the tomap option.

       If this option is omitted, the codeset of the current locale shall be used.

       If either -f or -t represents a charmap file, but the other does not (or is  omitted),  or
       both -f and -t are omitted, the results are undefined.

OPERANDS
       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   A  pathname of an input file. If no file operands are specified, or if a file oper-
	      and is '-' , the standard input shall be used.

STDIN
       The standard input shall be used only if no file operands are specified, or if a file  op-
       erand is '-' .

INPUT FILES
       The input file shall be a text file.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of iconv:

       LANG   Provide  a  default  value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
	      null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Inter-
	      nationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used
	      to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the  other  interna-
	      tionalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE
	      Determine  the  locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as
	      characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters	in  argu-
	      ments).  During  translation of the file, this variable is superseded by the use of
	      the fromcode option-argument.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diag-
	      nostic messages written to standard error.

       NLSPATH
	      Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       When  the  -l option is used, the standard output shall contain all supported fromcode and
       tocode values, written in an unspecified format.

       When the -l option is not used, the standard output shall contain the sequence of  charac-
       ters read from the input files, translated to the specified codeset. Nothing else shall be
       written to the standard output.

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

	0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       The user must ensure that both charmap files use the same symbolic  names  for  characters
       the two codesets have in common.

EXAMPLES
       The  following  example converts the contents of file mail.x400 from the ISO/IEC 6937:1994
       standard codeset to the ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998 standard codeset, and stores  the  results  in
       file mail.local:

	      iconv -f IS6937 -t IS8859 mail.x400 > mail.local

RATIONALE
       The  iconv  utility  can be used portably only when the user provides two charmap files as
       option-arguments. This is because a single charmap provided by the user cannot reliably be
       joined with the names in a system-provided character set description. The valid values for
       fromcode and tocode are implementation-defined and do not have to have any relation to the
       charmap	mechanisms.  As  an  aid to interactive users, the -l option was adopted from the
       Plan 9 operating system. It writes  information	concerning  these  implementation-defined
       values.	The  format  is  unspecified  because there are many possible useful formats that
       could be chosen, such as a matrix of valid combinations of fromcode  and  tocode.  The  -l
       option  is  not	intended for shell script usage; conforming applications will have to use
       charmaps.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       gencat

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and	reproduced  in	electronic  form  from	IEEE  Std
       1003.1,	2003  Edition,	Standard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System
       Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003  by
       the  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE  and  The  Open  Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
       inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group			       2003					 ICONV(P)


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