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Linux 2.6 - man page for fuser (linux section 1posix)

FUSER(P)			    POSIX Programmer's Manual				 FUSER(P)

NAME
       fuser - list process IDs of all processes that have one or more files open

SYNOPSIS
       fuser [ -cfu ] file ...

DESCRIPTION
       The  fuser  utility shall write to standard output the process IDs of processes running on
       the local system that have one or more named files open. For block  special  devices,  all
       processes using any file on that device are listed.

       The  fuser  utility  shall  write to standard error additional information about the named
       files indicating how the file is being used.

       Any output for processes running on remote systems that have a named file open is unspeci-
       fied.

       A user may need appropriate privilege to invoke the fuser utility.

OPTIONS
       The  fuser  utility  shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,
       Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -c     The file is treated as a mount point and the utility shall report on any files open
	      in the file system.

       -f     The report shall be only for the named files.

       -u     The  user name, in parentheses, associated with each process ID written to standard
	      output shall be written to standard error.

OPERANDS
       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   A pathname on which the file or file system is to be reported.

STDIN
       Not used.

INPUT FILES
       The user database.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of fuser:

       LANG   Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that  are	unset  or
	      null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Inter-
	      nationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used
	      to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other interna-
	      tionalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE
	      Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text  data  as
	      characters  (for	example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in argu-
	      ments).

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diag-
	      nostic messages written to standard error.

       NLSPATH
	      Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       The  fuser utility shall write the process ID for each process using each file given as an
       operand to standard output in the following format:

	      "%d", <process_id>

STDERR
       The fuser utility shall write diagnostic messages to standard error.

       The fuser utility also shall write the following to standard error:

	* The pathname of each named file is written followed immediately by a colon.

	* For each process ID written to standard output, the character 'c' shall be  written  to
	  standard  error if the process is using the file as its current directory and the char-
	  acter 'r' shall be written to standard error if the process is using the  file  as  its
	  root directory. Implementations may write other alphabetic characters to indicate other
	  uses of files.

	* When the -u option is specified, characters indicating the use of  the  file	shall  be
	  followed  immediately  by  the user name, in parentheses, corresponding to the process'
	  real user ID.  If the user name cannot be resolved from the process' real user ID,  the
	  process' real user ID shall be written instead of the user name.

       When standard output and standard error are directed to the same file, the output shall be
       interleaved so that the filename appears at the	start  of  each  line,	followed  by  the
       process ID and characters indicating the use of the file. Then, if the -u option is speci-
       fied, the user name or user ID for each process using that file shall be written.

       A <newline> shall be written to standard error after the last output described  above  for
       each file operand.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

	0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

EXAMPLES
       The command:

	      fuser -fu .

       writes  to  standard output the process IDs of processes that are using the current direc-
       tory and writes to standard error an indication of  how	those  processes  are  using  the
       directory  and  the  user  names  associated with the processes that are using the current
       directory.

RATIONALE
       The definition of the fuser utility follows existing practice.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       None.

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and	reproduced  in	electronic  form  from	IEEE  Std
       1003.1,	2003  Edition,	Standard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System
       Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003  by
       the  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE  and  The  Open  Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
       inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group			       2003					 FUSER(P)


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