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Linux 2.6 - man page for expand (linux section 1posix)

EXPAND(P)			    POSIX Programmer's Manual				EXPAND(P)

NAME
       expand - convert tabs to spaces

SYNOPSIS
       expand [-t tablist][file ...]

DESCRIPTION
       The  expand  utility  shall  write files or the standard input to the standard output with
       <tab>s replaced with one or more <space>s  needed  to  pad  to  the  next  tab  stop.  Any
       <backspace>s  shall  be	copied	to the output and cause the column position count for tab
       stop calculations to be decremented; the column position count shall  not  be  decremented
       below zero.

OPTIONS
       The  expand  utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,
       Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following option shall be supported:

       -t  tablist
	      Specify the tab stops. The application shall ensure that the argument tablist  con-
	      sists  of either a single positive decimal integer or a list of tabstops. If a sin-
	      gle number is given, tabs shall be  set  that  number  of  column  positions  apart
	      instead of the default 8.

       If a list of tabstops is given, the application shall ensure that it consists of a list of
       two or more positive decimal integers, separated  by  <blank>s  or  commas,  in	ascending
       order.  The tabs shall be set at those specific column positions. Each tab stop N shall be
       an integer value greater than zero, and the list is in strictly ascending order.  This  is
       taken  to mean that, from the start of a line of output, tabbing to position N shall cause
       the next character output to be in the ( N+1)th column position on that line.

       In the event of expand having to process a <tab> at a position beyond the  last	of  those
       specified  in a multiple tab-stop list, the <tab> shall be replaced by a single <space> in
       the output.

OPERANDS
       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   The pathname of a text file to be used as input.

STDIN
       See the INPUT FILES section.

INPUT FILES
       Input files shall be text files.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of expand:

       LANG   Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that  are	unset  or
	      null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Inter-
	      nationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used
	      to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other interna-
	      tionalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE
	      Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text  data  as
	      characters  (for	example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in argu-
	      ments and input files), the processing of <tab>s and <space>s, and for the determi-
	      nation  of  the  width in column positions each character would occupy on an output
	      device.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diag-
	      nostic messages written to standard error.

       NLSPATH
	      Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       The  standard output shall be equivalent to the input files with <tab>s converted into the
       appropriate number of <space>s.

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

	0     Successful completion

       >0     An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       The expand utility shall terminate with an error message and  non-zero  exit  status  upon
       encountering difficulties accessing one of the file operands.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

EXAMPLES
       None.

RATIONALE
       The expand utility is useful for preprocessing text files (before sorting, looking at spe-
       cific columns, and so on) that contain <tab>s.

       See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 3.103, Column Position.

       The tablist option-argument consists of integers in ascending order. Utility Syntax Guide-
       line  8	mandates that expand shall accept the integers (within the single argument) sepa-
       rated using either commas or <blank>s.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       tabs , unexpand

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and	reproduced  in	electronic  form  from	IEEE  Std
       1003.1,	2003  Edition,	Standard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System
       Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003  by
       the  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE  and  The  Open  Group
       Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
       inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group			       2003					EXPAND(P)


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