CFLOW(P) POSIX Programmer's Manual CFLOW(P)
cflow - generate a C-language flowgraph (DEVELOPMENT)
cflow [-r][-d num][-D name[=def]] ... [-i incl][-I dir] ...
[-U dir] ... file ...
The cflow utility shall analyze a collection of object files or assembler, C-language,
lex, or yacc source files, and attempt to build a graph, written to standard output,
charting the external references.
The cflow utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,
Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines, except that the order of the -D, -I, and -U
options (which are identical to their interpretation by c99) is significant.
The following options shall be supported:
Indicate the depth at which the flowgraph is cut off. The application shall ensure
that the argument num is a decimal integer. By default this is a very large number
(typically greater than 32000). Attempts to set the cut-off depth to a non-positive
integer shall be ignored.
Increase the number of included symbols. The incl option-argument is one of the
Include external and static data symbols. The default shall be to include only
functions in the flowgraph.
(Underscore) Include names that begin with an underscore. The default shall be to
exclude these functions (and data if -i x is used).
-r Reverse the caller:callee relationship, producing an inverted listing showing the
callers of each function. The listing shall also be sorted in lexicographical order
The following operand is supported:
file The pathname of a file for which a graph is to be generated. Filenames suffixed by
.l shall shall be taken to be lex input, .y as yacc input, .c as c99 input, and .i
as the output of c99 -E. Such files shall be processed as appropriate, determined
by their suffix.
Files suffixed by .s (conventionally assembler source) may have more limited information
extracted from them.
The input files shall be object files or assembler, C-language, lex, or yacc source files.
The following environment variables shall affect the execution of cflow:
LANG Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Inter-
nationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used
to determine the values of locale categories.)
LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other interna-
Determine the locale for the ordering of the output when the -r option is used.
Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as
characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in argu-
ments and input files).
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diag-
nostic messages written to standard error.
Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .
The flowgraph written to standard output shall be formatted as follows:
"%d %s:%s\n", <reference number>, <global>, <definition>
Each line of output begins with a reference (that is, line) number, followed by indenta-
tion of at least one column position per level. This is followed by the name of the
global, a colon, and its definition. Normally globals are only functions not defined as an
external or beginning with an underscore; see the OPTIONS section for the -i inclusion
option. For information extracted from C-language source, the definition consists of an
abstract type declaration (for example, char *) and, delimited by angle brackets, the name
of the source file and the line number where the definition was found. Definitions
extracted from object files indicate the filename and location counter under which the
symbol appeared (for example, text).
Once a definition of a name has been written, subsequent references to that name contain
only the reference number of the line where the definition can be found. For undefined
references, only "<>" shall be written.
The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.
The following exit values shall be returned:
0 Successful completion.
>0 An error occurred.
CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
The following sections are informative.
Files produced by lex and yacc cause the reordering of line number declarations, and this
can confuse cflow. To obtain proper results, the input of yacc or lex must be directed to
Given the following in file.c:
i = h();
cflow -i x file.c
produces the output:
1 main: int(), <file.c 6>
2 f: int(), <file.c 13>
3 h: <>
4 i: int, <file.c 1>
5 g: <>
c99 , lex , yacc
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std
1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System
Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by
the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group
Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The orig-
inal Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .
IEEE/The Open Group 2003 CFLOW(P)