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XAUTH(1)										 XAUTH(1)

NAME
       xauth - X authority file utility

SYNOPSIS
       xauth [ -f authfile ] [ -vqibn ] [ command arg ... ]

DESCRIPTION
       The  xauth  program is used to edit and display the authorization information used in con-
       necting to the X server.  This program is usually used to  extract  authorization  records
       from  one machine and merge them in on another (as is the case when using remote logins or
       granting access to other users).  Commands (described below) may be entered interactively,
       on  the	xauth command line, or in scripts.  Note that this program does not contact the X
       server except when the generate command is used.  Normally xauth is not used to create the
       authority  file	entry in the first place; the program that starts the X server (often xdm
       or startx) does that.

OPTIONS
       The following options may be used with xauth.  They may be given  individually  (e.g.,  -q
       -i) or may combined (e.g., -qi).

       -f authfile
	       This  option  specifies	the name of the authority file to use.	By default, xauth
	       will use the file specified by the XAUTHORITY environment variable or  .Xauthority
	       in the user's home directory.

       -q      This  option indicates that xauth should operate quietly and not print unsolicited
	       status messages.  This is the default if an xauth command is given on the  command
	       line or if the standard output is not directed to a terminal.

       -v      This  option  indicates	that xauth should operate verbosely and print status mes-
	       sages indicating the results of various operations (e.g., how  many  records  have
	       been  read  in  or written out).  This is the default if xauth is reading commands
	       from its standard input and its standard output is directed to a terminal.

       -i      This option indicates that xauth should ignore any  authority  file  locks.   Nor-
	       mally, xauth will refuse to read or edit any authority files that have been locked
	       by other programs (usually xdm or another xauth).

       -b      This option indicates that xauth should attempt to break any authority file  locks
	       before proceeding.  Use this option only to clean up stale locks.

       -n      This  option indicates that xauth should not attempt to resolve any hostnames, but
	       should simply always print the host address as stored in the authority file.

COMMANDS
       The following commands may be used to manipulate authority files:

       add displayname protocolname hexkey
	       An authorization entry for the indicated display using the given protocol and  key
	       data  is  added	to  the  authorization	file.	The data is specified as an even-
	       lengthed string of hexadecimal digits, each  pair  representing	one  octet.   The
	       first  digit  of each pair gives the most significant 4 bits of the octet, and the
	       second digit of the pair gives the least significant 4 bits.  For  example,  a  32
	       character  hexkey  would represent a 128-bit value.  A protocol name consisting of
	       just a single period is treated as an abbreviation for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.

       generate displayname protocolname [trusted|untrusted]
	       [timeout seconds] [group group-id] [data hexdata]

	       This command is similar to add.	The main difference is that instead of	requiring
	       the  user  to supply the key data, it connects to the server specified in display-
	       name and uses the SECURITY extension in order to get the key data to store in  the
	       authorization  file.   If the server cannot be contacted or if it does not support
	       the SECURITY extension, the command fails.  Otherwise, an authorization entry  for
	       the indicated display using the given protocol is added to the authorization file.
	       A protocol name consisting of just a single period is treated as  an  abbreviation
	       for MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1.

	       If  the trusted option is used, clients that connect using this authorization will
	       have full run of the display, as usual.	If untrusted is used, clients  that  con-
	       nect  using  this  authorization  will  be considered untrusted and prevented from
	       stealing or tampering with data belonging to trusted clients.   See  the  SECURITY
	       extension  specification for full details on the restrictions imposed on untrusted
	       clients.  The default is untrusted.

	       The timeout option specifies how long in seconds this authorization will be valid.
	       If  the authorization remains unused (no clients are connected with it) for longer
	       than this time period, the server purges the authorization, and future attempts to
	       connect	using  it  will  fail.	Note that the purging done by the server does not
	       delete the authorization entry from the authorization file.  The  default  timeout
	       is 60 seconds.

	       The group option specifies the application group that clients connecting with this
	       authorization should belong to.	See the application group extension specification
	       for more details.  The default is to not belong to an application group.

	       The  data  option specifies data that the server should use to generate the autho-
	       rization.  Note that this is not the same data that gets written to the authoriza-
	       tion file.  The interpretation of this data depends on the authorization protocol.
	       The hexdata is in the same format as the hexkey described in the add command.  The
	       default is to send no data.

       [n]extract filename displayname...
	       Authorization  entries for each of the specified displays are written to the indi-
	       cated file.  If the nextract command is used, the entries are written in a numeric
	       format suitable for non-binary transmission (such as secure electronic mail).  The
	       extracted entries can be read back in using the merge and nmerge commands.  If the
	       filename  consists of just a single dash, the entries will be written to the stan-
	       dard output.

       [n]list [displayname...]
	       Authorization entries for each of the specified displays (or all  if  no  displays
	       are  named)  are  printed  on  the standard output.  If the nlist command is used,
	       entries will be shown in the numeric format used by the nextract  command;  other-
	       wise,  they  are  shown	in a textual format.  Key data is always displayed in the
	       hexadecimal format given in the description of the add command.

       [n]merge [filename...]
	       Authorization entries are read from the specified files and are	merged	into  the
	       authorization  database,  superseding any matching existing entries. If the nmerge
	       command is used, the numeric format given in the description of the  extract  com-
	       mand  is  used.	 If a filename consists of just a single dash, the standard input
	       will be read if it hasn't been read before.

       remove displayname...
	       Authorization entries matching the specified displays are removed from the author-
	       ity file.

       source filename
	       The  specified  file  is treated as a script containing xauth commands to execute.
	       Blank lines and lines beginning with a sharp sign (#) are ignored.  A single  dash
	       may be used to indicate the standard input, if it hasn't already been read.

       info    Information  describing	the  authorization  file, whether or not any changes have
	       been made, and from where xauth commands are being read is printed on the standard
	       output.

       exit    If  any	modifications  have  been  made,  the  authority  file is written out (if
	       allowed), and the program exits.  An end of file is treated as  an  implicit  exit
	       command.

       quit    The  program  exits, ignoring any modifications.  This may also be accomplished by
	       pressing the interrupt character.

       help [string]
	       A description of all commands that begin with the given string (or all commands if
	       no string is given) is printed on the standard output.

       ?       A short list of the valid commands is printed on the standard output.

DISPLAY NAMES
       Display names for the add, [n]extract, [n]list, [n]merge, and remove commands use the same
       format as the DISPLAY environment variable and the common -display command line	argument.
       Display-specific  information  (such  as  the  screen  number)  is unnecessary and will be
       ignored.  Same-machine connections (such as local-host sockets,	shared	memory,  and  the
       Internet  Protocol  hostname  localhost) are referred to as hostname/unix:displaynumber so
       that local entries for different machines may be stored in one authority file.

EXAMPLE
       The most common use for xauth is to extract the entry for the current display, copy it  to
       another machine, and merge it into the user's authority file on the remote machine:

	       %  xauth extract - $DISPLAY | ssh otherhost xauth merge -

       The  following  command	contacts  the server :0 to create an authorization using the MIT-
       MAGIC-COOKIE-1 protocol.  Clients that connect with this authorization will be untrusted.
	    %  xauth generate :0 .

ENVIRONMENT
       This xauth program uses the following environment variables:

       XAUTHORITY
	       to get the name of the authority file to use if the -f option isn't used.

       HOME    to get the user's home directory if XAUTHORITY isn't defined.

FILES
       $HOME/.Xauthority
	       default authority file if XAUTHORITY isn't defined.

SEE ALSO
       X(7), Xsecurity(7), xhost(1), Xserver(1), xdm(1), startx(1), Xau(3).

BUGS
       Users that have unsecure networks should take care to use encrypted file  transfer  mecha-
       nisms  to  copy authorization entries between machines.	Similarly, the MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1
       protocol is not very useful in unsecure environments.  Sites that are interested in  addi-
       tional security may need to use encrypted authorization mechanisms such as Kerberos.

       Spaces  are  currently  not  allowed in the protocol name.  Quoting could be added for the
       truly perverse.

AUTHOR
       Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium

X Version 11				   xauth 1.0.6					 XAUTH(1)
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