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TAIL(1) 				  User Commands 				  TAIL(1)

NAME
       tail - output the last part of files

SYNOPSIS
       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       Print the last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more than one FILE, precede
       each with a header giving the file name.  With no FILE, or when FILE is -,  read  standard
       input.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -c, --bytes=K
	      output the last K bytes; alternatively, use -c +K to output bytes starting with the
	      Kth of each file

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
	      output appended data as the file grows; -f, --follow, and  --follow=descriptor  are
	      equivalent

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=K
	      output  the  last  K  lines,  instead  of the last 10; or use -n +K to output lines
	      starting with the Kth

       --max-unchanged-stats=N
	      with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not changed size after  N  (default  5)
	      iterations  to  see  if  it has been unlinked or renamed (this is the usual case of
	      rotated log files)

       --pid=PID
	      with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
	      never output headers giving file names

       --retry
	      keep trying to open a file even when it is or  becomes  inaccessible;  useful  when
	      following by name, i.e., with --follow=name

       -s, --sleep-interval=N
	      with -f, sleep for approximately N seconds (default 1.0) between iterations

       -v, --verbose
	      always output headers giving file names

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
	      output version information and exit

       If  the first character of K (the number of bytes or lines) is a `+', print beginning with
       the Kth item from the start of each file, otherwise, print the last K items in  the  file.
       K  may  have  a	multiplier  suffix: b 512, kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, GB
       1000*1000*1000, G 1024*1024*1024, and so on for T, P, E, Z, Y.

       With --follow (-f), tail defaults to following the file descriptor, which means that  even
       if  a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will continue to track its end.  This default behavior
       is not desirable when you really want to track the actual name of the file, not	the  file
       descriptor  (e.g.,  log	rotation).   Use --follow=name in that case.  That causes tail to
       track the named file in a way that accommodates renaming, removal and creation.

AUTHOR
       Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Meyering.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report tail bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
       GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>
       Report tail translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU GPL  version  3  or
       later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This  is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO WARRANTY,
       to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
       The full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info	and  tail
       programs are properly installed at your site, the command

	      info coreutils 'tail invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 8.5			  February 2011 				  TAIL(1)
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