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Linux 2.6 - man page for shar (linux section 1)

SHAR(1) 										  SHAR(1)

NAME
       shar - create shell archives

SYNOPSIS
       shar [ options ] file ...
       shar -S [ options ]

DESCRIPTION
       Shar  creates "shell archives" (or shar files) which are in text format and can be mailed.
       These files may be unpacked later by executing them with /bin/sh.  The  resulting  archive
       is  sent  to standard out unless the -o option is given.  A wide range of features provide
       extensive flexibility in manufacturing shars and in specifying shar "smartness".  Archives
       may be "vanilla" or comprehensive.

OPTIONS
       Options have a one letter version starting with - or a long version starting with --.  The
       exception is --help, --version, --no-i18n and --print-text-domain-dir which does not  have
       short  versions.  Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
       Options can be given in any order.  Some options depend on each other:
	    The -o option is required if the -l or -L option is used.
	    The -n option is required if the -a option is used.
	    See -V below.

   Giving feedback:
       --help Print a help summary on standard output, then immediately exits.

       --version
	      Print the version number of the program on standard output, then immediately exits.

       -q --quiet --silent
	      Do not output verbose messages locally when producing the archive.

   Selecting files:
       -p  --intermix-type
	      Allow positional parameter options.  The options -B, -T, -z and -Z may be embedded,
	      and files to the right of the option will be processed in the specified mode.

       -S  --stdin-file-list
	      Read  list  of files to be packed from the standard input rather than from the com-
	      mand line.  Input must be in a form similar to that generated by the find  command,
	      one filename per line.  This switch is especially useful when the command line will
	      not hold the list of files to be packed.	For example:

	      find . -type f -print | \
		sort | \
		shar -S -Z -L50 -o /somewhere/big

	      If -p is specified on the command line, then the options -B, -T, -z and -Z  may  be
	      included	in  the  standard input (on a line separate from filenames).  The maximum
	      number of lines of standard input, file names and options, may not exceed 1024.

   Splitting output:
       -o XXX  --output-prefix=XXX
	      Save the archive to files XXX.01 thru XXX.nn instead of sending it to standard out.
	      Must be used when the -l or the -L switches are used.

       -l XX  --whole-size-limit=XX
	      Limit the output file size to XXk bytes but don't split input files.

       -L XX  --split-size-limit=XX
	      Limit  output  file  size  to  XXk bytes and split files if necessary.  The archive
	      parts created with this option must be unpacked in correct order.

   Controlling the shar headers:
       -n name	--archive-name=name
	      Name of archive to be included in the header of the shar files.  See the -a switch.

       -s who@where  --submitter=who@where
	      Override automatically determined submitter name.

       -a  --net-headers
	      Allows automatic generation of headers:
		   Submitted-by: who@where
		   Archive-name: <name>/part##
	      The <name> must be given with the -n switch.  If name includes a '/' "/part"  isn't
	      used.  Thus:
		 -n xyzzy		       produces:
					       xyzzy/part01
					       xyzzy/part02

		 -n xyzzy/patch 	       produces:
					       xyzzy/patch01
					       xyzzy/patch02

		 -n xyzzy/patch01.	       produces:
					       xyzzy/patch01.01
					       xyzzy/patch01.02

	      The  who@where  can  be  explicitly  stated with the -s switch if the default isn't
	      appropriate.  Who@where is essentially built as `whoami`@`uname`.

       -c  --cut-mark
	      Start the shar with a cut line.  A line saying 'Cut here' is placed at the start of
	      each output file.

       -t  --translate
	      Translate  messages  in the script.  If you have set the LANG environment variable,
	      messages printed by shar will be in the specified language.   The  produced  script
	      will  still  be  emitted using messages in the lingua franca of the computer world:
	      English.	This option will cause the script messages to  appear  in  the	languages
	      specified by the LANG environment variable set when the script is produced.

   Selecting how files are stocked:
       -M  --mixed-uuencode
	      Mixed  mode.   Determine	if  the  files	are  text or binary and archive correctly
	      (default).  Files found to be binary are uudecoded prior to packing (USE	OF  UUEN-
	      CODE IS NOT APPRECIATED BY MANY ON THE NET).

       -T  --text-files
	      Treat all files as text.

       -B  --uuencode
	      Treat  all files as binary, use uuencode prior to packing.  This increases the size
	      of the archive.  The recipient must have uudecode in  order  to  unpack.	 (USE  OF
	      UUENCODE IS NOT APPRECIATED BY MANY ON THE NET).

       -z  --gzip
	      Gzip and uuencode all files prior to packing.  The recipient must have uudecode and
	      gzip in order to unpack (USE OF UUENCODE AND GZIP IS NOT APPRECIATED BY MANY ON THE
	      NET).

       -g LEVEL  --level-for-gzip=LEVEL
	      When doing compression, use '-LEVEL' as a parameter to gzip.  Default is 9.  The -g
	      option turns on the -z option by default.

       -Z  --compress
	      Compress and uuencode all files prior to packing.  The recipient must have uudecode
	      and compress in order to unpack (USE OF UUENCODE AND COMPRESS IS NOT APPRECIATED BY
	      MANY ON THE NET).  Option -C is synonymous to -Z, but is being deprecated.

       -b BITS	--bits-per-code=BITS
	      When doing compression, use '-bBITS' as a parameter to  compress.   The  -B  option
	      turns on the -Z option by default.  Default value is 12.

   Protecting against transmission errors:
       -w  --no-character-count
	      Do NOT check each file with 'wc -c' after unpack.  The default is to check.

       -D  --no-md5-digest
	      Do NOT use 'md5sum' digest to verify the unpacked files. The default is to check.

       -F  --force-prefix
	      Forces  the  prefix  character  (normally 'X' unless the parameter to the -d option
	      starts with 'X') to be prepended to every line even if not required.   This  option
	      may slightly increase the size of the archive, especially if -B or -Z is used.

       -d XXX  --here-delimiter=XXX
	      Use  XXX	to  delimit the files in the shar instead of SHAR_EOF.	This is for those
	      who want to personalize their shar files.

   Producing different kinds of shars:
       -V  --vanilla-operation
	      Produce "vanilla" shars which rely only upon the existence of sed and echo  in  the
	      unsharing environment.  In addition, "if test" must also be supported unless the -x
	      option is used.  The -V silently disables options offensive to  the  "network  cop"
	      (or  "brown shirt"), but does warn you if it is specified with -B, -z, -Z, -p or -M
	      (any of which does or might require uudecode, gzip or  compress  in  the	unsharing
	      environment).

       -P  --no-piping
	      Use temporary files instead of pipes in the shar file.

       -x  --no-check-existing
	      Overwrite  existing files without checking.  If neither -x nor -X is specified, the
	      unpack will check for and not overwrite existing files when unpacking the  archive.
	      If -c is passed as a parameter to the script when unpacking:

		 sh archive -c

	      then existing files will be overwritten unconditionally.

       -X  --query-user
	      When unpacking, interactively ask the user if files should be overwritten.  (DO NOT
	      USE FOR SHARS SUBMITTED TO THE NET).

       -m  --no-timestamp
	      Avoid generating 'touch' commands to  restore  the  file	modification  dates  when
	      unpacking files from the archive.

       -Q  --quiet-unshar
	      Verbose  OFF.   Disables the inclusion of comments to be output when the archive is
	      unpacked.

       -f  --basename
	      Restore by filename only, rather than path.  This option causes only file names  to
	      be  used, which is useful when building a shar from several directories, or another
	      directory.  Note that if a directory name is passed to shar,  the  substructure  of
	      that directory will be restored whether -f is specified or not.

   Internationalization:
       --no-i18n
	      Do  not produce internationalized shell archives, use default English messages.  By
	      default, shar produces archives that will try to output messages in  the	unpackers
	      preferred  language (as determined by the LANG/LC_MESSAGES environmental variables)
	      when they are unpacked.  If no message file for the unpackers language is found  at
	      unpack time, messages will be in English.

       --print-text-domain-dir
	      Prints  the directory shar looks in to find messages files for different languages,
	      then immediately exits.

EXAMPLES
       shar *.c > cprog.shar		    # all C prog sources
       shar -Q *.[ch] > cprog.shar	    # non-verbose, .c and .h files
       shar -B -l28 -oarc.sh *.arc	    # all binary .arc files, into
					    # files arc.sh.01 thru arc.sh.NN
       shar -f /lcl/src/u*.c > u.sh	    # use only the filenames

WARNINGS
       No chmod or touch is ever generated for directories created when unpacking.   Thus,  if	a
       directory  is  given  to  shar,	the  protection  and  modification dates of corresponding
       unpacked directory may not match those of the original.

       If a directory is passed to shar, it may be scanned more than once.  Therefore, one should
       be careful not change the directory while shar is running.

       Be  careful  that the output file(s) are not included in the inputs or shar may loop until
       the disk fills up.  Be particularly careful when a directory is passed to  shar	that  the
       output files are not in that directory (or a subdirectory of that directory).

       Use  of	the  -B,  -z or -Z, and especially -M, may slow the archive process considerably,
       depending on the number of files.

       Use of -X produces shars which WILL cause problems with many unshar procedures.	Use  this
       feature	only for archives to be passed among agreeable parties.  Certainly, -X is NOT for
       shell archives which are to be submitted to Usenet.  Usage of -B, -z or -Z  in  net  shars
       will  cause you to be flamed off the earth.  Not using -m or not using -F may also get you
       occasional complaints.

SEE ALSO
       unshar(1)

DIAGNOSTICS
       Error messages for illegal or incompatible options, for non-regular, missing or inaccessi-
       ble files or for (unlikely) memory allocation failure.

AUTHORS
       The shar and unshar programs is the collective work of many authors.  Many people contrib-
       uted by reporting problems, suggesting various improvements or submitting actual code.	A
       list of these people is in the THANKS file in the sharutils distribution.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report  bugs  to <bug-gnu-utils@gnu.org>.  Please put sharutils or uuencode in the subject
       line.  It helps to spot the message.

					   July 1, 2005 				  SHAR(1)


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