MYSQL_UPGRADE(1) MySQL Database System MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)
mysql_upgrade - check and upgrade MySQL tables
mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current
version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can
take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.
mysql_upgrade should be executed each time you upgrade MySQL.
If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table
check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be
repaired, see Section 2.11.4, "Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes" for manual table
On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run mysql_upgrade with
administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator
and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute
You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an
upgrade. See Section 7.2, "Database Backup Methods".
Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your
MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.11.1, "Upgrading MySQL", for
instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your
installation and how to handle them.
To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running, and then invoke it like this:
shell> mysql_upgrade [options]
After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to
the system tables take effect.
mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade
the system tables:
mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --auto-repair
mysql < fix_priv_tables
mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --fix-db-names --fix-table-names
Notes about the preceding commands:
o Because mysql_upgrade invokes mysqlcheck with the --all-databases option, it processes
all tables in all databases, which might take a long time to complete. Each table is
locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check
and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables.
o For details about what checks the --check-upgrade option entails, see the description
of the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE statement (see Section 18.104.22.168, "CHECK
o fix_priv_tables represents a script generated internally by mysql_upgrade that
contains SQL statements to upgrade the tables in the mysql database.
All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This
ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can
tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.
mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in
the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for
this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the
check regardless, use the --force option.
If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client
RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the
latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.1, "Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM
mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions,
see Section 5.1.10, "Server-Side Help".
mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line
or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an option file. Other options are passed
to mysqlcheck. For example, it might be necessary to specify the --password[=password]
option. mysql_upgrade also supports the options for processing option files described at
Section 22.214.171.124, "Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling".
Display a short help message and exit.
The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option is accepted for backward
compatibility but ignored. It is removed in MySQL 5.7.
The path to the data directory. This option is accepted for backward compatibility but
ignored. It is removed in MySQL 5.7.
o --debug=debug_options, -# debug_options
Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:O,file_name. The default
Print some debugging information when the program exits.
o --debug-info, -T
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program
The client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.6, "Pluggable
This option was added in MySQL 5.5.10.
Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution of mysqlcheck even if
mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of MySQL.
The directory in which to look for plugins. It may be necessary to specify this option
if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but
mysql_upgrade does not find it. See Section 6.3.6, "Pluggable Authentication".
This option was added in MySQL 5.5.10.
o --tmpdir=path, -t path
The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files.
o --upgrade-system-tables, -s
Upgrade only the system tables, do not upgrade data.
o --user=user_name, -u user_name
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The default user name is
Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.
o --version-check, -k
Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade is connecting to verify that it
is the same as the version for which mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade
exits. This option is enabled by default; to disable the check, use
--skip-version-check. This option was added in MySQL 5.5.32.
Cause binary logging to be enabled while mysql_upgrade runs. This is the default
behavior; to disable binary logging during the upgrade, use the inverse of this option
(that is, start the program with --skip-write-binlog).
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This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it only under
the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation;
version 2 of the License.
This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
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PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
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Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which may already be
installed locally and which is also available online at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/.
Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).
MySQL 5.5 01/30/2014 MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)