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Linux 2.6 - man page for git-svn (linux section 1)

GIT-SVN(1)				    Git Manual				       GIT-SVN(1)

       git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git

       git svn <command> [options] [arguments]

       git svn is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and Git. It provides a
       bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a Git repository.

       git svn can track a standard Subversion repository, following the common
       "trunk/branches/tags" layout, with the --stdlayout option. It can also follow branches and
       tags in any layout with the -T/-t/-b options (see options to init below, and also the
       clone command).

       Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the Git repository
       can be updated from Subversion by the fetch command and Subversion updated from Git by the
       dcommit command.

	   Initializes an empty Git repository with additional metadata directories for git svn.
	   The Subversion URL may be specified as a command-line argument, or as full URL
	   arguments to -T/-t/-b. Optionally, the target directory to operate on can be specified
	   as a second argument. Normally this command initializes the current directory.

	   -T<trunk_subdir>, --trunk=<trunk_subdir>, -t<tags_subdir>, --tags=<tags_subdir>,
	   -b<branches_subdir>, --branches=<branches_subdir>, -s, --stdlayout
	       These are optional command-line options for init. Each of these flags can point to
	       a relative repository path (--tags=project/tags) or a full url
	       (--tags=https://foo.org/project/tags). You can specify more than one --tags and/or
	       --branches options, in case your Subversion repository places tags or branches
	       under multiple paths. The option --stdlayout is a shorthand way of setting
	       trunk,tags,branches as the relative paths, which is the Subversion default. If any
	       of the other options are given as well, they take precedence.

	       Set the noMetadata option in the [svn-remote] config. This option is not
	       recommended, please read the svn.noMetadata section of this manpage before using
	       this option.

	       Set the useSvmProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

	       Set the useSvnsyncProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

	       Set the rewriteRoot option in the [svn-remote] config.

	       Set the rewriteUUID option in the [svn-remote] config.

	       For transports that SVN handles authentication for (http, https, and plain svn),
	       specify the username. For other transports (eg svn+ssh://), you must include the
	       username in the URL, eg svn+ssh://foo@svn.bar.com/project

	       This allows one to specify a prefix which is prepended to the names of remotes if
	       trunk/branches/tags are specified. The prefix does not automatically include a
	       trailing slash, so be sure you include one in the argument if that is what you
	       want. If --branches/-b is specified, the prefix must include a trailing slash.
	       Setting a prefix (with a trailing slash) is strongly encouraged in any case, as
	       your SVN-tracking refs will then be located at "refs/remotes/$prefix/", which is
	       compatible with Git's own remote-tracking ref layout (refs/remotes/$remote/).
	       Setting a prefix is also useful if you wish to track multiple projects that share
	       a common repository.

		   In Git v2.0, the default prefix will CHANGE from "" (no prefix) to "origin/".
		   This is done to put SVN-tracking refs at "refs/remotes/origin/" instead of
		   "refs/remotes/", and make them more compatible with how Git's own
		   remote-tracking refs are organized (i.e. refs/remotes/$remote/*). You can
		   enjoy the same benefits today, by using the --prefix option.

	       When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be preserved as a config
	       key. See fetch for a description of --ignore-paths.

	       When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be preserved as a config
	       key. See fetch for a description of --include-paths.

	       When tracking multiple directories (using --stdlayout, --branches, or --tags
	       options), git svn will attempt to connect to the root (or highest allowed level)
	       of the Subversion repository. This default allows better tracking of history if
	       entire projects are moved within a repository, but may cause issues on
	       repositories where read access restrictions are in place. Passing
	       --no-minimize-url will allow git svn to accept URLs as-is without attempting to
	       connect to a higher level directory. This option is off by default when only one
	       URL/branch is tracked (it would do little good).

	   Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion remote we are tracking. The name of the
	   [svn-remote "..."] section in the $GIT_DIR/config file may be specified as an optional
	   command-line argument.

	   This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*  in
	   the FILES section below for details).

	       Store Git commit times in the local time zone instead of UTC. This makes git log
	       (even without --date=local) show the same times that svn log would in the local
	       time zone.

	       This doesn't interfere with interoperating with the Subversion repository you
	       cloned from, but if you wish for your local Git repository to be able to
	       interoperate with someone else's local Git repository, either don't use this
	       option or you should both use it in the same local time zone.

	       Fetch only from the SVN parent of the current HEAD.

	       This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will cause skipping of
	       all matching paths from checkout from SVN. The --ignore-paths option should match
	       for every fetch (including automatic fetches due to clone, dcommit, rebase, etc)
	       on a given repository.

		   config key: svn-remote.<name>.ignore-paths

	       If the ignore-paths config key is set and the command line option is also given,
	       both regular expressions will be used.


	       Skip "doc*" directory for every fetch


	       Skip "branches" and "tags" of first level directories


	       This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will cause the inclusion
	       of only matching paths from checkout from SVN. The --include-paths option should
	       match for every fetch (including automatic fetches due to clone, dcommit, rebase,
	       etc) on a given repository.  --ignore-paths takes precedence over --include-paths.

	       Fetch <n> log entries per request when scanning Subversion history. The default is
	       100. For very large Subversion repositories, larger values may be needed for
	       clone/fetch to complete in reasonable time. But overly large values may lead to
	       higher memory usage and request timeouts.

	   Runs init and fetch. It will automatically create a directory based on the basename of
	   the URL passed to it; or if a second argument is passed; it will create a directory
	   and work within that. It accepts all arguments that the init and fetch commands
	   accept; with the exception of --fetch-all and --parent. After a repository is cloned,
	   the fetch command will be able to update revisions without affecting the working tree;
	   and the rebase command will be able to update the working tree with the latest

	       Create a placeholder file in the local Git repository for each empty directory
	       fetched from Subversion. This includes directories that become empty by removing
	       all entries in the Subversion repository (but not the directory itself). The
	       placeholder files are also tracked and removed when no longer necessary.

	       Set the name of placeholder files created by --preserve-empty-dirs. Default:

	   This fetches revisions from the SVN parent of the current HEAD and rebases the current
	   (uncommitted to SVN) work against it.

	   This works similarly to svn update or git pull except that it preserves linear history
	   with git rebase instead of git merge for ease of dcommitting with git svn.

	   This accepts all options that git svn fetch and git rebase accept. However,
	   --fetch-all only fetches from the current [svn-remote], and not all [svn-remote]

	   Like git rebase; this requires that the working tree be clean and have no uncommitted

	   This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*  in
	   the FILES section below for details).

	   -l, --local
	       Do not fetch remotely; only run git rebase against the last fetched commit from
	       the upstream SVN.

	   Commit each diff from the current branch directly to the SVN repository, and then
	   rebase or reset (depending on whether or not there is a diff between SVN and head).
	   This will create a revision in SVN for each commit in Git.

	   When an optional Git branch name (or a Git commit object name) is specified as an
	   argument, the subcommand works on the specified branch, not on the current branch.

	   Use of dcommit is preferred to set-tree (below).

	       After committing, do not rebase or reset.

	   --commit-url <URL>
	       Commit to this SVN URL (the full path). This is intended to allow existing git svn
	       repositories created with one transport method (e.g.  svn:// or http:// for
	       anonymous read) to be reused if a user is later given access to an alternate
	       transport method (e.g.  svn+ssh:// or https://) for commit.

		   config key: svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
		   config key: svn.commiturl (overwrites all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl options)

	       Using this option for any other purpose (don't ask) is very strongly discouraged.

	       Add the given merge information during the dcommit (e.g.
	       --mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10"). All svn server versions can store this
	       information (as a property), and svn clients starting from version 1.5 can make
	       use of it. To specify merge information from multiple branches, use a single space
	       character between the branches (--mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10

		   config key: svn.pushmergeinfo

	       This option will cause git-svn to attempt to automatically populate the
	       svn:mergeinfo property in the SVN repository when possible. Currently, this can
	       only be done when dcommitting non-fast-forward merges where all parents but the
	       first have already been pushed into SVN.

	       Ask the user to confirm that a patch set should actually be sent to SVN. For each
	       patch, one may answer "yes" (accept this patch), "no" (discard this patch), "all"
	       (accept all patches), or "quit".

	       git svn dcommit returns immediately if answer is "no" or "quit", without
	       committing anything to SVN.

	   Create a branch in the SVN repository.

	   -m, --message
	       Allows to specify the commit message.

	   -t, --tag
	       Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the branches_subdir specified
	       during git svn init.

	   -d<path>, --destination=<path>
	       If more than one --branches (or --tags) option was given to the init or clone
	       command, you must provide the location of the branch (or tag) you wish to create
	       in the SVN repository. <path> specifies which path to use to create the branch or
	       tag and should match the pattern on the left-hand side of one of the configured
	       branches or tags refspecs. You can see these refspecs with the commands

		   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.branches
		   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.tags

	       where <name> is the name of the SVN repository as specified by the -R option to
	       init (or "svn" by default).

	       Specify the SVN username to perform the commit as. This option overrides the
	       username configuration property.

	       Use the specified URL to connect to the destination Subversion repository. This is
	       useful in cases where the source SVN repository is read-only. This option
	       overrides configuration property commiturl.

		   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl

	       Create parent folders. This parameter is equivalent to the parameter --parents on
	       svn cp commands and is useful for non-standard repository layouts.

	   Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for branch -t.

	   This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn users refer to
	   -r/--revision numbers.

	   The following features from 'svn log' are supported:

	   -r <n>[:<n>], --revision=<n>[:<n>]
	       is supported, non-numeric args are not: HEAD, NEXT, BASE, PREV, etc ...

	   -v, --verbose
	       it's not completely compatible with the --verbose output in svn log, but
	       reasonably close.

	       is NOT the same as --max-count, doesn't count merged/excluded commits


	   New features:

	       shows the Git commit sha1, as well

	       our version of --pretty=oneline

	       SVN itself only stores times in UTC and nothing else. The regular svn client
	       converts the UTC time to the local time (or based on the TZ= environment). This
	       command has the same behaviour.
	   Any other arguments are passed directly to git log

	   Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file. The output of this
	   mode is format-compatible with the output of 'svn blame' by default. Like the SVN
	   blame command, local uncommitted changes in the working tree are ignored; the version
	   of the file in the HEAD revision is annotated. Unknown arguments are passed directly
	   to git blame.

	       Produce output in the same format as git blame, but with SVN revision numbers
	       instead of Git commit hashes. In this mode, changes that haven't been committed to
	       SVN (including local working-copy edits) are shown as revision 0.

	   When given an SVN revision number of the form rN, returns the corresponding Git commit
	   hash (this can optionally be followed by a tree-ish to specify which branch should be
	   searched). When given a tree-ish, returns the corresponding SVN revision number.

	       Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision, instead find the commit
	       corresponding to the state of the SVN repository (on the current branch) at the
	       specified revision.

	       Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision; if there is not an exact
	       match return the closest match searching forward in the history.

	   You should consider using dcommit instead of this command. Commit specified commit or
	   tree objects to SVN. This relies on your imported fetch data being up-to-date. This
	   makes absolutely no attempts to do patching when committing to SVN, it simply
	   overwrites files with those specified in the tree or commit. All merging is assumed to
	   have taken place independently of git svn functions.

	   Recursively finds the svn:ignore property on directories and creates matching
	   .gitignore files. The resulting files are staged to be committed, but are not
	   committed. Use -r/--revision to refer to a specific revision.

	   Recursively finds and lists the svn:ignore property on directories. The output is
	   suitable for appending to the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.

	   Attempts to recreate empty directories that core Git cannot track based on information
	   in $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files. Empty directories are automatically
	   recreated when using "git svn clone" and "git svn rebase", so "mkdirs" is intended for
	   use after commands like "git checkout" or "git reset". (See the
	   svn-remote.<name>.automkdirs config file option for more information.)

	   Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the command-line. This command does
	   not rely on being inside an git svn init-ed repository. This command takes three
	   arguments, (a) the original tree to diff against, (b) the new tree result, (c) the URL
	   of the target Subversion repository. The final argument (URL) may be omitted if you
	   are working from a git svn-aware repository (that has been init-ed with git svn). The
	   -r<revision> option is required for this.

	   Shows information about a file or directory similar to what 'svn info' provides. Does
	   not currently support a -r/--revision argument. Use the --url option to output only
	   the value of the URL: field.

	   Lists the properties stored in the Subversion repository about a given file or
	   directory. Use -r/--revision to refer to a specific Subversion revision.

	   Gets the Subversion property given as the first argument, for a file. A specific
	   revision can be specified with -r/--revision.

	   Shows the Subversion externals. Use -r/--revision to specify a specific revision.

	   Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files and remove
	   $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/index files.

	   Undoes the effects of fetch back to the specified revision. This allows you to
	   re-fetch an SVN revision. Normally the contents of an SVN revision should never change
	   and reset should not be necessary. However, if SVN permissions change, or if you alter
	   your --ignore-paths option, a fetch may fail with "not found in commit" (file not
	   previously visible) or "checksum mismatch" (missed a modification). If the problem
	   file cannot be ignored forever (with --ignore-paths) the only way to repair the repo
	   is to use reset.

	   Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed (see $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*
	   in the FILES section below for details). Follow reset with a fetch and then git reset
	   or git rebase to move local branches onto the new tree.

	   -r <n>, --revision=<n>
	       Specify the most recent revision to keep. All later revisions are discarded.

	   -p, --parent
	       Discard the specified revision as well, keeping the nearest parent instead.

	       Assume you have local changes in "master", but you need to refetch "r2".

		       r1---r2---r3 remotes/git-svn
				    A---B master

	       Fix the ignore-paths or SVN permissions problem that caused "r2" to be incomplete
	       in the first place. Then:

		   git svn reset -r2 -p
		   git svn fetch

		       r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
			  r2---r3---A---B master

	       Then fixup "master" with git rebase. Do NOT use git merge or your history will not
	       be compatible with a future dcommit!

		   git rebase --onto remotes/git-svn A^ master

		       r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
				    A'--B' master

       --shared[=(false|true|umask|group|all|world|everybody)], --template=<template_directory>
	   Only used with the init command. These are passed directly to git init.

       -r <arg>, --revision <arg>
	   Used with the fetch command.

	   This allows revision ranges for partial/cauterized history to be supported. $NUMBER,
	   $NUMBER1:$NUMBER2 (numeric ranges), $NUMBER:HEAD, and BASE:$NUMBER are all supported.

	   This can allow you to make partial mirrors when running fetch; but is generally not
	   recommended because history will be skipped and lost.

       -, --stdin
	   Only used with the set-tree command.

	   Read a list of commits from stdin and commit them in reverse order. Only the leading
	   sha1 is read from each line, so git rev-list --pretty=oneline output can be used.

	   Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

	   Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left behind. SVN can
	   version empty directories, and they are not removed by default if there are no files
	   left in them. Git cannot version empty directories. Enabling this flag will make the
	   commit to SVN act like Git.

	       config key: svn.rmdir

       -e, --edit
	   Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

	   Edit the commit message before committing to SVN. This is off by default for objects
	   that are commits, and forced on when committing tree objects.

	       config key: svn.edit

       -l<num>, --find-copies-harder
	   Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

	   They are both passed directly to git diff-tree; see git-diff-tree(1) for more

	       config key: svn.l
	       config key: svn.findcopiesharder

       -A<filename>, --authors-file=<filename>
	   Syntax is compatible with the file used by git cvsimport:

		       loginname = Joe User <user@example.com>

	   If this option is specified and git svn encounters an SVN committer name that does not
	   exist in the authors-file, git svn will abort operation. The user will then have to
	   add the appropriate entry. Re-running the previous git svn command after the
	   authors-file is modified should continue operation.

	       config key: svn.authorsfile

	   If this option is specified, for each SVN committer name that does not exist in the
	   authors file, the given file is executed with the committer name as the first
	   argument. The program is expected to return a single line of the form "Name <email>",
	   which will be treated as if included in the authors file.

       -q, --quiet
	   Make git svn less verbose. Specify a second time to make it even less verbose.

       --repack[=<n>], --repack-flags=<flags>
	   These should help keep disk usage sane for large fetches with many revisions.

	   --repack takes an optional argument for the number of revisions to fetch before
	   repacking. This defaults to repacking every 1000 commits fetched if no argument is

	   --repack-flags are passed directly to git repack.

	       config key: svn.repack
	       config key: svn.repackflags

       -m, --merge, -s<strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>, -p, --preserve-merges
	   These are only used with the dcommit and rebase commands.

	   Passed directly to git rebase when using dcommit if a git reset cannot be used (see

       -n, --dry-run
	   This can be used with the dcommit, rebase, branch and tag commands.

	   For dcommit, print out the series of Git arguments that would show which diffs would
	   be committed to SVN.

	   For rebase, display the local branch associated with the upstream svn repository
	   associated with the current branch and the URL of svn repository that will be fetched

	   For branch and tag, display the urls that will be used for copying when creating the
	   branch or tag.

	   When retrieving svn commits into Git (as part of fetch, rebase, or dcommit
	   operations), look for the first From: or Signed-off-by: line in the log message and
	   use that as the author string.

	   When committing to svn from Git (as part of commit-diff, set-tree or dcommit
	   operations), if the existing log message doesn't already have a From: or
	   Signed-off-by: line, append a From: line based on the Git commit's author string. If
	   you use this, then --use-log-author will retrieve a valid author string for all

       -i<GIT_SVN_ID>, --id <GIT_SVN_ID>
	   This sets GIT_SVN_ID (instead of using the environment). This allows the user to
	   override the default refname to fetch from when tracking a single URL. The log and
	   dcommit commands no longer require this switch as an argument.

       -R<remote name>, --svn-remote <remote name>
	   Specify the [svn-remote "<remote name>"] section to use, this allows SVN multiple
	   repositories to be tracked. Default: "svn"

	   This option is only relevant if we are tracking branches (using one of the repository
	   layout options --trunk, --tags, --branches, --stdlayout). For each tracked branch, try
	   to find out where its revision was copied from, and set a suitable parent in the first
	   Git commit for the branch. This is especially helpful when we're tracking a directory
	   that has been moved around within the repository. If this feature is disabled, the
	   branches created by git svn will all be linear and not share any history, meaning that
	   there will be no information on where branches were branched off or merged. However,
	   following long/convoluted histories can take a long time, so disabling this feature
	   may speed up the cloning process. This feature is enabled by default, use
	   --no-follow-parent to disable it.

	       config key: svn.followparent

       svn.noMetadata, svn-remote.<name>.noMetadata
	   This gets rid of the git-svn-id: lines at the end of every commit.

	   This option can only be used for one-shot imports as git svn will not be able to fetch
	   again without metadata. Additionally, if you lose your $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*
	   files, git svn will not be able to rebuild them.

	   The git svn log command will not work on repositories using this, either. Using this
	   conflicts with the useSvmProps option for (hopefully) obvious reasons.

	   This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to track down old references
	   to SVN revision numbers in existing documentation, bug reports and archives. If you
	   plan to eventually migrate from SVN to Git and are certain about dropping SVN history,
	   consider git-filter-branch(1) instead. filter-branch also allows reformatting of
	   metadata for ease-of-reading and rewriting authorship info for non-"svn.authorsFile"

       svn.useSvmProps, svn-remote.<name>.useSvmProps
	   This allows git svn to re-map repository URLs and UUIDs from mirrors created using
	   SVN::Mirror (or svk) for metadata.

	   If an SVN revision has a property, "svm:headrev", it is likely that the revision was
	   created by SVN::Mirror (also used by SVK). The property contains a repository UUID and
	   a revision. We want to make it look like we are mirroring the original URL, so
	   introduce a helper function that returns the original identity URL and UUID, and use
	   it when generating metadata in commit messages.

       svn.useSvnsyncProps, svn-remote.<name>.useSvnsyncprops
	   Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users of the svnsync(1) command
	   distributed with SVN 1.4.x and later.

	   This allows users to create repositories from alternate URLs. For example, an
	   administrator could run git svn on the server locally (accessing via file://) but wish
	   to distribute the repository with a public http:// or svn:// URL in the metadata so
	   users of it will see the public URL.

	   Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users who need to remap the UUID
	   manually. This may be useful in situations where the original UUID is not available
	   via either useSvmProps or useSvnsyncProps.

	   Similar to Git's remote.<name>.pushurl, this key is designed to be used in cases where
	   url points to an SVN repository via a read-only transport, to provide an alternate
	   read/write transport. It is assumed that both keys point to the same repository.
	   Unlike commiturl, pushurl is a base path. If either commiturl or pushurl could be
	   used, commiturl takes precedence.

	   This disables potentially expensive checks to workaround broken symlinks checked into
	   SVN by broken clients. Set this option to "false" if you track a SVN repository with
	   many empty blobs that are not symlinks. This option may be changed while git svn is
	   running and take effect on the next revision fetched. If unset, git svn assumes this
	   option to be "true".

	   This instructs git svn to recode pathnames to a given encoding. It can be used by
	   windows users and by those who work in non-utf8 locales to avoid corrupted file names
	   with non-ASCII characters. Valid encodings are the ones supported by Perl's Encode

	   Normally, the "git svn clone" and "git svn rebase" commands attempt to recreate empty
	   directories that are in the Subversion repository. If this option is set to "false",
	   then empty directories will only be created if the "git svn mkdirs" command is run
	   explicitly. If unset, git svn assumes this option to be "true".

       Since the noMetadata, rewriteRoot, rewriteUUID, useSvnsyncProps and useSvmProps options
       all affect the metadata generated and used by git svn; they must be set in the
       configuration file before any history is imported and these settings should never be
       changed once they are set.

       Additionally, only one of these options can be used per svn-remote section because they
       affect the git-svn-id: metadata line, except for rewriteRoot and rewriteUUID which can be
       used together.

       Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed project (ignoring tags and

	   # Clone a repo (like git clone):
		   git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project/trunk
	   # Enter the newly cloned directory:
		   cd trunk
	   # You should be on master branch, double-check with 'git branch'
		   git branch
	   # Do some work and commit locally to Git:
		   git commit ...
	   # Something is committed to SVN, rebase your local changes against the
	   # latest changes in SVN:
		   git svn rebase
	   # Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using Git) to SVN,
	   # as well as automatically updating your working HEAD:
		   git svn dcommit
	   # Append svn:ignore settings to the default Git exclude file:
		   git svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude

       Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project (complete with a trunk,
       tags and branches):

	   # Clone a repo with standard SVN directory layout (like git clone):
		   git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project --stdlayout --prefix svn/
	   # Or, if the repo uses a non-standard directory layout:
		   git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project -T tr -b branch -t tag --prefix svn/
	   # View all branches and tags you have cloned:
		   git branch -r
	   # Create a new branch in SVN
		   git svn branch waldo
	   # Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing 'trunk'
	   # with the appropriate name):
		   git reset --hard svn/trunk
	   # You may only dcommit to one branch/tag/trunk at a time.  The usage
	   # of dcommit/rebase/show-ignore should be the same as above.

       The initial git svn clone can be quite time-consuming (especially for large Subversion
       repositories). If multiple people (or one person with multiple machines) want to use git
       svn to interact with the same Subversion repository, you can do the initial git svn clone
       to a repository on a server and have each person clone that repository with git clone:

	   # Do the initial import on a server
		   ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project [options...]"
	   # Clone locally - make sure the refs/remotes/ space matches the server
		   mkdir project
		   cd project
		   git init
		   git remote add origin server:/pub/project
		   git config --replace-all remote.origin.fetch '+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*'
		   git fetch
	   # Prevent fetch/pull from remote Git server in the future,
	   # we only want to use git svn for future updates
		   git config --remove-section remote.origin
	   # Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched
		   git checkout -b master FETCH_HEAD
	   # Initialize 'git svn' locally (be sure to use the same URL and
	   # --stdlayout/-T/-b/-t/--prefix options as were used on server)
		   git svn init http://svn.example.com/project [options...]
	   # Pull the latest changes from Subversion
		   git svn rebase

       Prefer to use git svn rebase or git rebase, rather than git pull or git merge to
       synchronize unintegrated commits with a git svn branch. Doing so will keep the history of
       unintegrated commits linear with respect to the upstream SVN repository and allow the use
       of the preferred git svn dcommit subcommand to push unintegrated commits back into SVN.

       Originally, git svn recommended that developers pulled or merged from the git svn branch.
       This was because the author favored git svn set-tree B to commit a single head rather than
       the git svn set-tree A..B notation to commit multiple commits. Use of git pull or git
       merge with git svn set-tree A..B will cause non-linear history to be flattened when
       committing into SVN and this can lead to merge commits unexpectedly reversing previous
       commits in SVN.

       While git svn can track copy history (including branches and tags) for repositories
       adopting a standard layout, it cannot yet represent merge history that happened inside git
       back upstream to SVN users. Therefore it is advised that users keep history as linear as
       possible inside Git to ease compatibility with SVN (see the CAVEATS section below).

       If git svn is configured to fetch branches (and --follow-branches is in effect), it
       sometimes creates multiple Git branches for one SVN branch, where the additional branches
       have names of the form branchname@nnn (with nnn an SVN revision number). These additional
       branches are created if git svn cannot find a parent commit for the first commit in an SVN
       branch, to connect the branch to the history of the other branches.

       Normally, the first commit in an SVN branch consists of a copy operation. git svn will
       read this commit to get the SVN revision the branch was created from. It will then try to
       find the Git commit that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the parent of
       the branch. However, it is possible that there is no suitable Git commit to serve as
       parent. This will happen, among other reasons, if the SVN branch is a copy of a revision
       that was not fetched by git svn (e.g. because it is an old revision that was skipped with
       --revision), or if in SVN a directory was copied that is not tracked by git svn (such as a
       branch that is not tracked at all, or a subdirectory of a tracked branch). In these cases,
       git svn will still create a Git branch, but instead of using an existing Git commit as the
       parent of the branch, it will read the SVN history of the directory the branch was copied
       from and create appropriate Git commits. This is indicated by the message "Initializing
       parent: <branchname>".

       Additionally, it will create a special branch named <branchname>@<SVN-Revision>, where
       <SVN-Revision> is the SVN revision number the branch was copied from. This branch will
       point to the newly created parent commit of the branch. If in SVN the branch was deleted
       and later recreated from a different version, there will be multiple such branches with an

       Note that this may mean that multiple Git commits are created for a single SVN revision.

       An example: in an SVN repository with a standard trunk/tags/branches layout, a directory
       trunk/sub is created in r.100. In r.200, trunk/sub is branched by copying it to branches/.
       git svn clone -s will then create a branch sub. It will also create new Git commits for
       r.100 through r.199 and use these as the history of branch sub. Thus there will be two Git
       commits for each revision from r.100 to r.199 (one containing trunk/, one containing
       trunk/sub/). Finally, it will create a branch sub@200 pointing to the new parent commit of
       branch sub (i.e. the commit for r.200 and trunk/sub/).

       For the sake of simplicity and interoperating with Subversion, it is recommended that all
       git svn users clone, fetch and dcommit directly from the SVN server, and avoid all git
       clone/pull/merge/push operations between Git repositories and branches. The recommended
       method of exchanging code between Git branches and users is git format-patch and git am,
       or just 'dcommit'ing to the SVN repository.

       Running git merge or git pull is NOT recommended on a branch you plan to dcommit from
       because Subversion users cannot see any merges you've made. Furthermore, if you merge or
       pull from a Git branch that is a mirror of an SVN branch, dcommit may commit to the wrong

       If you do merge, note the following rule: git svn dcommit will attempt to commit on top of
       the SVN commit named in

	   git log --grep=^git-svn-id: --first-parent -1

       You must therefore ensure that the most recent commit of the branch you want to dcommit to
       is the first parent of the merge. Chaos will ensue otherwise, especially if the first
       parent is an older commit on the same SVN branch.

       git clone does not clone branches under the refs/remotes/ hierarchy or any git svn
       metadata, or config. So repositories created and managed with using git svn should use
       rsync for cloning, if cloning is to be done at all.

       Since dcommit uses rebase internally, any Git branches you git push to before dcommit on
       will require forcing an overwrite of the existing ref on the remote repository. This is
       generally considered bad practice, see the git-push(1) documentation for details.

       Do not use the --amend option of git-commit(1) on a change you've already dcommitted. It
       is considered bad practice to --amend commits you've already pushed to a remote repository
       for other users, and dcommit with SVN is analogous to that.

       When cloning an SVN repository, if none of the options for describing the repository
       layout is used (--trunk, --tags, --branches, --stdlayout), git svn clone will create a Git
       repository with completely linear history, where branches and tags appear as separate
       directories in the working copy. While this is the easiest way to get a copy of a complete
       repository, for projects with many branches it will lead to a working copy many times
       larger than just the trunk. Thus for projects using the standard directory structure
       (trunk/branches/tags), it is recommended to clone with option --stdlayout. If the project
       uses a non-standard structure, and/or if branches and tags are not required, it is easiest
       to only clone one directory (typically trunk), without giving any repository layout
       options. If the full history with branches and tags is required, the options --trunk /
       --branches / --tags must be used.

       When using the options for describing the repository layout (--trunk, --tags, --branches,
       --stdlayout), please also specify the --prefix option (e.g. --prefix=origin/) to cause
       your SVN-tracking refs to be placed at refs/remotes/origin/* rather than the default
       refs/remotes/. The former is more compatible with the layout of Git's "regular"
       remote-tracking refs (refs/remotes/$remote/), and may potentially prevent similarly named
       SVN branches and Git remotes from clobbering each other. In Git v2.0 the default prefix
       used (i.e. when no --prefix is given) will change from "" (no prefix) to "origin/".

       When using multiple --branches or --tags, git svn does not automatically handle name
       collisions (for example, if two branches from different paths have the same name, or if a
       branch and a tag have the same name). In these cases, use init to set up your Git
       repository then, before your first fetch, edit the $GIT_DIR/config file so that the
       branches and tags are associated with different name spaces. For example:

	   branches = stable/*:refs/remotes/svn/stable/*
	   branches = debug/*:refs/remotes/svn/debug/*

       We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Any unhandled properties are logged to

       Renamed and copied directories are not detected by Git and hence not tracked when
       committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding support for this as it's quite difficult and
       time-consuming to get working for all the possible corner cases (Git doesn't do it,
       either). Committing renamed and copied files is fully supported if they're similar enough
       for Git to detect them.

       In SVN, it is possible (though discouraged) to commit changes to a tag (because a tag is
       just a directory copy, thus technically the same as a branch). When cloning an SVN
       repository, git svn cannot know if such a commit to a tag will happen in the future. Thus
       it acts conservatively and imports all SVN tags as branches, prefixing the tag name with

       git svn stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the repository $GIT_DIR/config
       file. It is similar the core Git [remote] sections except fetch keys do not accept glob
       arguments; but they are instead handled by the branches and tags keys. Since some SVN
       repositories are oddly configured with multiple projects glob expansions such those listed
       below are allowed:

	   [svn-remote "project-a"]
		   url = http://server.org/svn
		   fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
		   branches = branches/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
		   tags = tags/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Keep in mind that the * (asterisk) wildcard of the local ref (right of the :) must be the
       farthest right path component; however the remote wildcard may be anywhere as long as it's
       an independent path component (surrounded by / or EOL). This type of configuration is not
       automatically created by init and should be manually entered with a text-editor or using
       git config.

       It is also possible to fetch a subset of branches or tags by using a comma-separated list
       of names within braces. For example:

	   [svn-remote "huge-project"]
		   url = http://server.org/svn
		   fetch = trunk/src:refs/remotes/trunk
		   branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
		   tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Multiple fetch, branches, and tags keys are supported:

	   [svn-remote "messy-repo"]
		   url = http://server.org/svn
		   fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
		   fetch = branches/demos/june-project-a-demo:refs/remotes/project-a/demos/june-demo
		   branches = branches/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
		   branches = branches/demos/2011/*:refs/remotes/project-a/2011-demos/*
		   tags = tags/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Creating a branch in such a configuration requires disambiguating which location to use
       using the -d or --destination flag:

	   $ git svn branch -d branches/server release-2-3-0

       Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a branch or tag has
       appeared. If the subset of branches or tags is changed after fetching, then
       $GIT_DIR/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove (or reset) branches-maxRev and/or
       tags-maxRev as appropriate.

	   Mapping between Subversion revision numbers and Git commit names. In a repository
	   where the noMetadata option is not set, this can be rebuilt from the git-svn-id: lines
	   that are at the end of every commit (see the svn.noMetadata section above for

	   git svn fetch and git svn rebase automatically update the rev_map if it is missing or
	   not up to date.  git svn reset automatically rewinds it.


       Part of the git(1) suite

Git				    01/14/2014				       GIT-SVN(1)

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