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Linux 2.6 - man page for git-fetch (linux section 1)

GIT-FETCH(1)				    Git Manual				     GIT-FETCH(1)

       git-fetch - Download objects and refs from another repository

       git fetch [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
       git fetch [<options>] <group>
       git fetch --multiple [<options>] [(<repository> | <group>)...]
       git fetch --all [<options>]

       Fetches named heads or tags from one or more other repositories, along with the objects
       necessary to complete them.

       The ref names and their object names of fetched refs are stored in .git/FETCH_HEAD. This
       information is left for a later merge operation done by git merge.

       When <refspec> stores the fetched result in remote-tracking branches, the tags that point
       at these branches are automatically followed. This is done by first fetching from the
       remote using the given <refspec>s, and if the repository has objects that are pointed by
       remote tags that it does not yet have, then fetch those missing tags. If the other end has
       tags that point at branches you are not interested in, you will not get them.

       git fetch can fetch from either a single named repository, or from several repositories at
       once if <group> is given and there is a remotes.<group> entry in the configuration file.
       (See git-config(1)).

	   Fetch all remotes.

       -a, --append
	   Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the existing contents of
	   .git/FETCH_HEAD. Without this option old data in .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.

	   Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository created by git clone with
	   --depth=<depth> option (see git-clone(1)) to the specified number of commits from the
	   tip of each remote branch history. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.

	   Convert a shallow repository to a complete one, removing all the limitations imposed
	   by shallow repositories.

	   Show what would be done, without making any changes.

       -f, --force
	   When git fetch is used with <rbranch>:<lbranch> refspec, it refuses to update the
	   local branch <lbranch> unless the remote branch <rbranch> it fetches is a descendant
	   of <lbranch>. This option overrides that check.

       -k, --keep
	   Keep downloaded pack.

	   Allow several <repository> and <group> arguments to be specified. No <refspec>s may be

       -p, --prune
	   After fetching, remove any remote-tracking branches which no longer exist on the

       -n, --no-tags
	   By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the remote repository
	   are fetched and stored locally. This option disables this automatic tag following. The
	   default behavior for a remote may be specified with the remote.<name>.tagopt setting.
	   See git-config(1).

       -t, --tags
	   This is a short-hand for giving refs/tags/*:refs/tags/* refspec from the command line,
	   to ask all tags to be fetched and stored locally. Because this acts as an explicit
	   refspec, the default refspecs (configured with the remote.$name.fetch variable) are
	   overridden and not used.

	   This option controls if and under what conditions new commits of populated submodules
	   should be fetched too. It can be used as a boolean option to completely disable
	   recursion when set to no or to unconditionally recurse into all populated submodules
	   when set to yes, which is the default when this option is used without any value. Use
	   on-demand to only recurse into a populated submodule when the superproject retrieves a
	   commit that updates the submodule's reference to a commit that isn't already in the
	   local submodule clone.

	   Disable recursive fetching of submodules (this has the same effect as using the
	   --recurse-submodules=no option).

	   Prepend <path> to paths printed in informative messages such as "Fetching submodule
	   foo". This option is used internally when recursing over submodules.

	   This option is used internally to temporarily provide a non-negative default value for
	   the --recurse-submodules option. All other methods of configuring fetch's submodule
	   recursion (such as settings in gitmodules(5) and git-config(1)) override this option,
	   as does specifying --[no-]recurse-submodules directly.

       -u, --update-head-ok
	   By default git fetch refuses to update the head which corresponds to the current
	   branch. This flag disables the check. This is purely for the internal use for git pull
	   to communicate with git fetch, and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you
	   are not supposed to use it.

       --upload-pack <upload-pack>
	   When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by git fetch-pack,
	   --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to specify non-default path for the
	   command run on the other end.

       -q, --quiet
	   Pass --quiet to git-fetch-pack and silence any other internally used git commands.
	   Progress is not reported to the standard error stream.

       -v, --verbose
	   Be verbose.

	   Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default when it is
	   attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This flag forces progress status even
	   if the standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.

	   The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull operation. This
	   parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below) or the name of a remote
	   (see the section REMOTES below).

	   A name referring to a list of repositories as the value of remotes.<group> in the
	   configuration file. (See git-config(1)).

	   The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by the source ref
	   <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the destination ref <dst>.

	   The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the
	   local ref that matches it is fast-forwarded using <src>. If the optional plus + is
	   used, the local ref is updated even if it does not result in a fast-forward update.

	       If the remote branch from which you want to pull is modified in non-linear ways
	       such as being rewound and rebased frequently, then a pull will attempt a merge
	       with an older version of itself, likely conflict, and fail. It is under these
	       conditions that you would want to use the + sign to indicate non-fast-forward
	       updates will be needed. There is currently no easy way to determine or declare
	       that a branch will be made available in a repository with this behavior; the
	       pulling user simply must know this is the expected usage pattern for a branch.

	       You never do your own development on branches that appear on the right hand side
	       of a <refspec> colon on Pull: lines; they are to be updated by git fetch. If you
	       intend to do development derived from a remote branch B, have a Pull: line to
	       track it (i.e.  Pull: B:remote-B), and have a separate branch my-B to do your
	       development on top of it. The latter is created by git branch my-B remote-B (or
	       its equivalent git checkout -b my-B remote-B). Run git fetch to keep track of the
	       progress of the remote side, and when you see something new on the remote branch,
	       merge it into your development branch with git pull . remote-B, while you are on
	       my-B branch.

	       There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec> directly on git pull
	       command line and having multiple Pull: <refspec> lines for a <repository> and
	       running git pull command without any explicit <refspec> parameters. <refspec>
	       listed explicitly on the command line are always merged into the current branch
	       after fetching. In other words, if you list more than one remote refs, you would
	       be making an Octopus. While git pull run without any explicit <refspec> parameter
	       takes default <refspec>s from Pull: lines, it merges only the first <refspec>
	       found into the current branch, after fetching all the remote refs. This is because
	       making an Octopus from remote refs is rarely done, while keeping track of multiple
	       remote heads in one-go by fetching more than one is often useful.
	   Some short-cut notations are also supported.

	   o	tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>; it requests fetching
	       everything up to the given tag.

	   o   A parameter <ref> without a colon fetches that ref into FETCH_HEAD, and updates
	       the remote-tracking branches (if any).

       In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the address of the
       remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending on the transport protocol, some
       of this information may be absent.

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and ftps can be used
       for fetching and rsync can be used for fetching and pushing, but these are inefficient and
       deprecated; do not use them).

       The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and should be used with
       caution on unsecured networks.

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

       o   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:

       o   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first colon. This helps
       differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For example the local path foo:bar could
       be specified as an absolute path or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

       o   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       o   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following syntaxes may be

       o   /path/to/repo.git/

       o   file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the former implies
       --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.

       When Git doesn't know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it attempts to use the
       remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To explicitly request a remote helper,
       the following syntax may be used:

       o   <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary URL-like string
       recognized by the specific remote helper being invoked. See gitremote-helpers(1) for

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and you want to use a
       different format for them (such that the URLs you use will be rewritten into URLs that
       work), you can create a configuration section of the form:

		   [url "<actual url base>"]
			   insteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

		   [url "git://git.host.xz/"]
			   insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
			   insteadOf = work:

       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten in any
       context that takes a URL to be "git://git.host.xz/repo.git".

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a configuration section of the

		   [url "<actual url base>"]
			   pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

		   [url "ssh://example.org/"]
			   pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/

       a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to
       "ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for pushes, but pulls will still use the original

       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as <repository> argument:

       o   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       o   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       o   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line because they each
       contain a refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously configured using
       git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL
       of this remote will be used to access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be
       used by default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The entry in the
       config file would appear like this:

		   [remote "<name>"]
			   url = <url>
			   pushurl = <pushurl>
			   push = <refspec>
			   fetch = <refspec>

       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to <url>.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The URL in this file
       will be used to access the repository. The refspec in this file will be used as default
       when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. This file should have the following

		   URL: one of the above URL format
		   Push: <refspec>
		   Pull: <refspec>

       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull and git fetch.
       Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The URL in this file
       will be used to access the repository. This file should have the following format:


       <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs, if you don't
       provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of this file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       and <head> defaults to master.

       git fetch uses:


       git push uses:


       o   Update the remote-tracking branches:

	       $ git fetch origin

	   The above command copies all branches from the remote refs/heads/ namespace and stores
	   them to the local refs/remotes/origin/ namespace, unless the branch.<name>.fetch
	   option is used to specify a non-default refspec.

       o   Using refspecs explicitly:

	       $ git fetch origin +pu:pu maint:tmp

	   This updates (or creates, as necessary) branches pu and tmp in the local repository by
	   fetching from the branches (respectively) pu and maint from the remote repository.

	   The pu branch will be updated even if it is does not fast-forward, because it is
	   prefixed with a plus sign; tmp will not be.

       Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked out submodules
       right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the just fetched commits of the
       superproject the submodule itself can not be fetched, making it impossible to check out
       that submodule later without having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a
       future Git version.


       Part of the git(1) suite

Git				    01/14/2014				     GIT-FETCH(1)

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