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BUSYBOX(1)				     busybox				       BUSYBOX(1)

NAME
       BusyBox - The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux

SYNTAX
	busybox <applet> [arguments...]  # or

	<applet> [arguments...] 	 # if symlinked

DESCRIPTION
       BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single small
       executable. It provides minimalist replacements for most of the utilities you usually find
       in GNU coreutils, util-linux, etc. The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options
       than their full-featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide the
       expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU counterparts.

       BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources in mind.  It is also
       extremely modular so you can easily include or exclude commands (or features) at compile
       time. This makes it easy to customize your embedded systems. To create a working system,
       just add /dev, /etc, and a Linux kernel.  BusyBox provides a fairly complete POSIX
       environment for any small or embedded system.

       BusyBox is extremely configurable.  This allows you to include only the components you
       need, thereby reducing binary size. Run 'make config' or 'make menuconfig' to select the
       functionality that you wish to enable.  Then run 'make' to compile BusyBox using your
       configuration.

       After the compile has finished, you should use 'make install' to install BusyBox. This
       will install the 'bin/busybox' binary, in the target directory specified by CONFIG_PREFIX.
       CONFIG_PREFIX can be set when configuring BusyBox, or you can specify an alternative
       location at install time (i.e., with a command line like 'make CONFIG_PREFIX=/tmp/foo
       install'). If you enabled any applet installation scheme (either as symlinks or
       hardlinks), these will also be installed in the location pointed to by CONFIG_PREFIX.

USAGE
       BusyBox is a multi-call binary.	A multi-call binary is an executable program that
       performs the same job as more than one utility program.	That means there is just a single
       BusyBox binary, but that single binary acts like a large number of utilities.  This allows
       BusyBox to be smaller since all the built-in utility programs (we call them applets) can
       share code for many common operations.

       You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing a command as an argument on the command line.  For
       example, entering

	       /bin/busybox ls

       will also cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls'.

       Of course, adding '/bin/busybox' into every command would be painful.  So most people will
       invoke BusyBox using links to the BusyBox binary.

       For example, entering

	       ln -s /bin/busybox ls
	       ./ls

       will cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls' (if the 'ls' command has been compiled into BusyBox).
       Generally speaking, you should never need to make all these links yourself, as the BusyBox
       build system will do this for you when you run the 'make install' command.

       If you invoke BusyBox with no arguments, it will provide you with a list of the applets
       that have been compiled into your BusyBox binary.

COMMON OPTIONS
       Most BusyBox applets support the --help argument to provide a terse runtime description of
       their behavior.	If the CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE_USAGE option has been enabled, more
       detailed usage information will also be available.

COMMANDS
       Currently available applets include:

	       [, [[, acpid, addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, ar, arping, ash, awk,
	       basename, blockdev, brctl, bunzip2, bzcat, bzip2, cal, cat, chgrp,
	       chmod, chown, chroot, chvt, clear, cmp, cp, cpio, crond, crontab,
	       cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, delgroup, deluser, df, dirname, dmesg,
	       dnsdomainname, dos2unix, dpkg, dpkg-deb, du, dumpkmap, dumpleases,
	       echo, ed, egrep, eject, env, expand, expr, false, fbset, fdflush,
	       fdisk, fgrep, find, fold, free, freeramdisk, fsck.minix, ftpget,
	       ftpput, getopt, getty, grep, gunzip, gzip, head, hexdump, hostid,
	       hostname, httpd, hwclock, id, ifconfig, ifdown, ifup, init, ionice,
	       ip, ipcalc, kill, killall, klogd, last, length, less, linuxrc, ln,
	       loadfont, loadkmap, logger, login, logname, logread, losetup, ls,
	       lzcat, makedevs, md5sum, mdev, mesg, microcom, mkdir, mkfifo,
	       mkfs.minix, mknod, mkswap, mktemp, more, mount, mt, mv, nameif, nc,
	       netstat, nslookup, od, openvt, passwd, patch, pidof, ping, ping6,
	       pivot_root, printf, ps, pwd, rdate, readlink, realpath, renice,
	       reset, rm, rmdir, route, rpm, rpm2cpio, run-parts, sed, setkeycodes,
	       sh, sha1sum, sha256sum, sha512sum, sleep, sort, start-stop-daemon,
	       static-sh, strings, stty, su, sulogin, swapoff, swapon, sync,
	       syslogd, tac, tail, tar, tee, telnet, telnetd, test, tftp, time,
	       timeout, top, touch, tr, traceroute, traceroute6, true, tty, tunctl,
	       udhcpc, udhcpd, umount, uname, uncompress, unexpand, uniq, unix2dos,
	       unlzma, unzip, uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode, vconfig, vi,
	       vlock, watch, watchdog, wc, wget, which, who, whoami, xargs, yes,
	       zcat

COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS
       acpid
	   acpid [-d] [-c CONFDIR] [-l LOGFILE] [-a ACTIONFILE] [-M MAPFILE] [-e PROC_EVENT_FILE]
	   [-p PIDFILE]

	   Listen to ACPI events and spawn specific helpers on event arrival

	   Options:

		   -c DIR  Config directory [/etc/acpi]
		   -d	   Don't daemonize, (implies -f)
		   -e FILE /proc event file [/proc/acpi/event]
		   -f	   Run in foreground
		   -l FILE Log file [/var/log/acpid.log]
		   -p FILE Pid file [/var/run/acpid.pid]
		   -a FILE Action file [/etc/acpid.conf]
		   -M FILE Map file [/etc/acpi.map]

       addgroup
	   addgroup [-g GID] GROUP

	   Add a group

	   Options:

		   -g GID  Group id
		   -S	   Create a system group

       adduser
	   adduser [OPTIONS] USER

	   Add a user

	   Options:

		   -h DIR	   Home directory
		   -g GECOS	   GECOS field
		   -s SHELL	   Login shell
		   -G GRP	   Add user to existing group
		   -S		   Create a system user
		   -D		   Don't assign a password
		   -H		   Don't create home directory
		   -u UID	   User id

       adjtimex
	   adjtimex [-q] [-o OFF] [-f FREQ] [-p TCONST] [-t TICK]

	   Read and optionally set system timebase parameters. See adjtimex(2)

	   Options:

		   -q	   Quiet
		   -o OFF  Time offset, microseconds
		   -f FREQ Frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm)
			   (positive values make clock run faster)
		   -t TICK Microseconds per tick, usually 10000
		   -p TCONST

       ar  ar [-o] [-v] [-p] [-t] [-x] ARCHIVE FILES

	   Extract or list FILES from an ar archive

	   Options:

		   -o	   Preserve original dates
		   -p	   Extract to stdout
		   -t	   List
		   -x	   Extract
		   -v	   Verbose

       arping
	   arping [-fqbDUA] [-c CNT] [-w TIMEOUT] [-I IFACE] [-s SRC_IP] DST_IP

	   Send ARP requests/replies

	   Options:

		   -f		   Quit on first ARP reply
		   -q		   Quiet
		   -b		   Keep broadcasting, don't go unicast
		   -D		   Duplicated address detection mode
		   -U		   Unsolicited ARP mode, update your neighbors
		   -A		   ARP answer mode, update your neighbors
		   -c N 	   Stop after sending N ARP requests
		   -w TIMEOUT	   Time to wait for ARP reply, seconds
		   -I IFACE	   Interface to use (default eth0)
		   -s SRC_IP	   Sender IP address
		   DST_IP	   Target IP address

       awk awk [OPTIONS] [AWK_PROGRAM] [FILE]...

	   Options:

		   -v VAR=VAL	   Set variable
		   -F SEP	   Use SEP as field separator
		   -f FILE	   Read program from FILE

       basename
	   basename FILE [SUFFIX]

	   Strip directory path and .SUFFIX from FILE

       blockdev
	   blockdev OPTION BLOCKDEV

	   Options:

		   --setro	   Set ro
		   --setrw	   Set rw
		   --getro	   Get ro
		   --getss	   Get sector size
		   --getbsz	   Get block size
		   --setbsz BYTES  Set block size
		   --getsize	   Get device size in 512-byte sectors
		   --getsize64	   Get device size in bytes
		   --flushbufs	   Flush buffers
		   --rereadpt	   Reread partition table

       brctl
	   brctl COMMAND [BRIDGE [INTERFACE]]

	   Manage ethernet bridges

	   Commands:

		   addbr BRIDGE 	   Create BRIDGE
		   delbr BRIDGE 	   Delete BRIDGE
		   addif BRIDGE IFACE	   Add IFACE to BRIDGE
		   delif BRIDGE IFACE	   Delete IFACE from BRIDGE

       bunzip2
	   bunzip2 [-cf] [FILE]...

	   Decompress FILEs (or stdin)

	   Options:

		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force

       bzcat
	   bzcat FILE

	   Decompress to stdout

       bzip2
	   bzip2 [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

	   Compress FILEs (or stdin) with bzip2 algorithm

	   Options:

		   -1..9   Compression level
		   -d	   Decompress
		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force

       cal cal [-jy] [[MONTH] YEAR]

	   Display a calendar

	   Options:

		   -j	   Use julian dates
		   -y	   Display the entire year

       cat cat [FILE]...

	   Concatenate FILEs and print them to stdout

       chgrp
	   chgrp [-RhLHPcvf]... GROUP FILE...

	   Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP

	   Options:

		   -R	   Recurse
		   -h	   Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
		   -L	   Traverse all symlinks to directories
		   -H	   Traverse symlinks on command line only
		   -P	   Don't traverse symlinks (default)
		   -c	   List changed files
		   -v	   Verbose
		   -f	   Hide errors

       chmod
	   chmod [-Rcvf] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...

	   Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols +-= and one or more
	   of the letters rwxst

	   Options:

		   -R	   Recurse
		   -c	   List changed files
		   -v	   List all files
		   -f	   Hide errors

       chown
	   chown [-RhLHPcvf]... OWNER[<.|:>[GROUP]] FILE...

	   Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP

	   Options:

		   -R	   Recurse
		   -h	   Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
		   -L	   Traverse all symlinks to directories
		   -H	   Traverse symlinks on command line only
		   -P	   Don't traverse symlinks (default)
		   -c	   List changed files
		   -v	   List all files
		   -f	   Hide errors

       chroot
	   chroot NEWROOT [PROG ARGS]

	   Run PROG with root directory set to NEWROOT

       chvt
	   chvt N

	   Change the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN

       clear
	   clear

	   Clear screen

       cmp cmp [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2 [SKIP1 [SKIP2]]]

	   Compare FILE1 with FILE2 (or stdin)

	   Options:

		   -l	   Write the byte numbers (decimal) and values (octal)
			   for all differing bytes
		   -s	   Quiet

       cp  cp [OPTIONS] SOURCE DEST

	   Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

	   Options:

		   -a	   Same as -dpR
		   -R,-r   Recurse
		   -d,-P   Preserve symlinks (default if -R)
		   -L	   Follow all symlinks
		   -H	   Follow symlinks on command line
		   -p	   Preserve file attributes if possible
		   -f	   Overwrite
		   -i	   Prompt before overwrite
		   -l,-s   Create (sym)links

       cpio
	   cpio [-dmvu] [-F FILE] [-H newc] [-tio]

	   Extract or list files from a cpio archive, or create an archive using file list on
	   stdin

	   Main operation mode:

		   -t	   List
		   -i	   Extract
		   -o	   Create (requires -H newc)
	   Options:

		   -d	   Make leading directories
		   -m	   Preserve mtime
		   -v	   Verbose
		   -u	   Overwrite
		   -F FILE Input (-t,-i,-p) or output (-o) file
		   -H newc Archive format

       crond
	   crond -fbS -l N -L LOGFILE -c DIR

		   -f	   Foreground
		   -b	   Background (default)
		   -S	   Log to syslog (default)
		   -l	   Set log level. 0 is the most verbose, default 8
		   -L	   Log to file
		   -c	   Working dir

       crontab
	   crontab [-c DIR] [-u USER] [-ler]|[FILE]

		   -c	   Crontab directory
		   -u	   User
		   -l	   List crontab
		   -e	   Edit crontab
		   -r	   Delete crontab
		   FILE    Replace crontab by FILE ('-': stdin)

       cut cut [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

	   Print selected fields from each input FILE to stdout

	   Options:

		   -b LIST Output only bytes from LIST
		   -c LIST Output only characters from LIST
		   -d CHAR Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter
		   -s	   Output only the lines containing delimiter
		   -f N    Print only these fields
		   -n	   Ignored

       date
	   date [OPTIONS] [+FMT] [TIME]

	   Display time (using +FMT), or set time

	   Options:

		   [-s,--set] TIME Set time to TIME
		   -u,--utc	   Work in UTC (don't convert to local time)
		   -R,--rfc-2822   Output RFC-2822 compliant date string
		   -I[SPEC]	   Output ISO-8601 compliant date string
				   SPEC='date' (default) for date only,
				   'hours', 'minutes', or 'seconds' for date and
				   time to the indicated precision
		   -r,--reference FILE	   Display last modification time of FILE
		   -d,--date TIME  Display TIME, not 'now'
		   -D FMT	   Use FMT for -d TIME conversion

	   Recognized TIME formats:

		   hh:mm[:ss]
		   [YYYY.]MM.DD-hh:mm[:ss]
		   YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm[:ss]
		   [[[[[YY]YY]MM]DD]hh]mm[.ss]

       dc  dc EXPRESSION...

	   Tiny RPN calculator. Operations: +, add, -, sub, *, mul, /, div, %, mod, **, exp, and,
	   or, not, eor, p - print top of the stack (without popping), f - print entire stack, o
	   - pop the value and set output radix (must be 10, 16, 8 or 2).  Examples: 'dc 2 2 add'
	   -> 4, 'dc 8 8 * 2 2 + /' -> 16

       dd  dd [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N]	 [seek=N]

	   Copy a file with converting and formatting

	   Options:

		   if=FILE	   Read from FILE instead of stdin
		   of=FILE	   Write to FILE instead of stdout
		   bs=N 	   Read and write N bytes at a time
		   count=N	   Copy only N input blocks
		   skip=N	   Skip N input blocks
		   seek=N	   Skip N output blocks

	   Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k (x1024), MD
	   (x1000000), M (x1048576), GD (x1000000000) or G (x1073741824)

       deallocvt
	   deallocvt [N]

	   Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN

       delgroup
	   delgroup GROUP

	   Delete group GROUP from the system

       deluser
	   deluser USER

	   Delete USER from the system

       df  df [-Pkmhai] [-B SIZE] [FILESYSTEM]...

	   Print filesystem usage statistics

	   Options:

		   -P	   POSIX output format
		   -k	   1024-byte blocks (default)
		   -m	   1M-byte blocks
		   -h	   Human readable (e.g. 1K 243M 2G)
		   -a	   Show all filesystems
		   -i	   Inodes
		   -B SIZE Blocksize

       dirname
	   dirname FILENAME

	   Strip non-directory suffix from FILENAME

       dmesg
	   dmesg [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]

	   Print or control the kernel ring buffer

	   Options:

		   -c		   Clear ring buffer after printing
		   -n LEVEL	   Set console logging level
		   -s SIZE	   Buffer size

       dos2unix
	   dos2unix [-ud] [FILE]

	   Convert FILE in-place from DOS to Unix format.  When no file is given, use
	   stdin/stdout.

	   Options:

		   -u	   dos2unix
		   -d	   unix2dos

       dpkg
	   dpkg [-ilCPru] [-F OPT] PACKAGE

	   Install, remove and manage Debian packages

	   Options:

		   -i,--install    Install the package
		   -l,--list	   List of installed packages
		   --configure	   Configure an unpackaged package
		   -P,--purge	   Purge all files of a package
		   -r,--remove	   Remove all but the configuration files for a package
		   --unpack	   Unpack a package, but don't configure it
		   --force-depends Ignore dependency problems
		   --force-confnew Overwrite existing config files when installing
		   --force-confold Keep old config files when installing

       dpkg-deb
	   dpkg-deb [-cefxX] FILE [argument]

	   Perform actions on Debian packages (.debs)

	   Options:

		   -c	   List contents of filesystem tree
		   -e	   Extract control files to [argument] directory
		   -f	   Display control field name starting with [argument]
		   -x	   Extract packages filesystem tree to directory
		   -X	   Verbose extract

       du  du [-aHLdclsxhmk] [FILE]...

	   Summarize disk space used for each FILE and/or directory.  Disk space is printed in
	   units of 1024 bytes.

	   Options:

		   -a	   Show file sizes too
		   -L	   Follow all symlinks
		   -H	   Follow symlinks on command line
		   -d N    Limit output to directories (and files with -a) of depth < N
		   -c	   Show grand total
		   -l	   Count sizes many times if hard linked
		   -s	   Display only a total for each argument
		   -x	   Skip directories on different filesystems
		   -h	   Sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )
		   -m	   Sizes in megabytes
		   -k	   Sizes in kilobytes (default)

       dumpkmap
	   dumpkmap > keymap

	   Print a binary keyboard translation table to stdout

       dumpleases
	   dumpleases [-r|-a] [-f LEASEFILE]

	   Display DHCP leases granted by udhcpd

	   Options:

		   -f,--file=FILE  Lease file
		   -r,--remaining  Show remaining time
		   -a,--absolute   Show expiration time

       echo
	   echo [-neE] [ARG]...

	   Print the specified ARGs to stdout

	   Options:

		   -n	   Suppress trailing newline
		   -e	   Interpret backslash escapes (i.e., \t=tab)
		   -E	   Don't interpret backslash escapes (default)

       ed  ed

       eject
	   eject [-t] [-T] [DEVICE]

	   Eject DEVICE or default /dev/cdrom

	   Options:

		   -s	   SCSI device
		   -t	   Close tray
		   -T	   Open/close tray (toggle)

       env env [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [PROG ARGS]

	   Print the current environment or run PROG after setting up the specified environment

	   Options:

		   -, -i   Start with an empty environment
		   -u	   Remove variable from the environment

       expand
	   expand [-i] [-t N] [FILE]...

	   Convert tabs to spaces, writing to stdout

	   Options:

		   -i,--initial    Don't convert tabs after non blanks
		   -t,--tabs=N	   Tabstops every N chars

       expr
	   expr EXPRESSION

	   Print the value of EXPRESSION to stdout

	   EXPRESSION may be:

		   ARG1 | ARG2	   ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2
		   ARG1 & ARG2	   ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0
		   ARG1 < ARG2	   1 if ARG1 is less than ARG2, else 0. Similarly:
		   ARG1 <= ARG2
		   ARG1 = ARG2
		   ARG1 != ARG2
		   ARG1 >= ARG2
		   ARG1 > ARG2
		   ARG1 + ARG2	   Sum of ARG1 and ARG2. Similarly:
		   ARG1 - ARG2
		   ARG1 * ARG2
		   ARG1 / ARG2
		   ARG1 % ARG2
		   STRING : REGEXP	   Anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING
		   match STRING REGEXP	   Same as STRING : REGEXP
		   substr STRING POS LENGTH Substring of STRING, POS counted from 1
		   index STRING CHARS	   Index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0
		   length STRING	   Length of STRING
		   quote TOKEN		   Interpret TOKEN as a string, even if
					   it is a keyword like 'match' or an
					   operator like '/'
		   (EXPRESSION) 	   Value of EXPRESSION

	   Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells.	Comparisons are
	   arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, else lexicographical. Pattern matches return the
	   string matched between \( and \) or null; if \( and \) are not used, they return the
	   number of characters matched or 0.

       false
	   false

	   Return an exit code of FALSE (1)

       fbset
	   fbset [OPTIONS] [MODE]

	   Show and modify frame buffer settings

       fdflush
	   fdflush DEVICE

	   Force floppy disk drive to detect disk change

       fdisk
	   fdisk [-ul] [-C CYLINDERS] [-H HEADS] [-S SECTORS] [-b SSZ] DISK

	   Change partition table

	   Options:

		   -u		   Start and End are in sectors (instead of cylinders)
		   -l		   Show partition table for each DISK, then exit
		   -b 2048	   (for certain MO disks) use 2048-byte sectors
		   -C CYLINDERS    Set number of cylinders/heads/sectors
		   -H HEADS
		   -S SECTORS

       find
	   find [PATH]... [EXPRESSION]

	   Search for files. The default PATH is the current directory, default EXPRESSION is
	   '-print'

	   EXPRESSION may consist of:

		   -follow	   Follow symlinks
		   -xdev	   Don't descend directories on other filesystems
		   -maxdepth N	   Descend at most N levels. -maxdepth 0 applies
				   tests/actions to command line arguments only
		   -mindepth N	   Don't act on first N levels
		   -name PATTERN   File name (w/o directory name) matches PATTERN
		   -iname PATTERN  Case insensitive -name
		   -path PATTERN   Path matches PATTERN
		   -regex PATTERN  Path matches regex PATTERN
		   -type X	   File type is X (X is one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)
		   -perm NNN	   Permissions match any of (+NNN), all of (-NNN),
				   or exactly NNN
		   -mtime DAYS	   Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
				   or exactly N days
		   -mmin MINS	   Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
				   or exactly N minutes
		   -newer FILE	   Modified time is more recent than FILE's
		   -inum N	   File has inode number N
		   -user NAME	   File is owned by user NAME (numeric user ID allowed)
		   -group NAME	   File belongs to group NAME (numeric group ID allowed)
		   -depth	   Process directory name after traversing it
		   -size N[bck]    File size is N (c:bytes,k:kbytes,b:512 bytes(def.))
				   +/-N: file size is bigger/smaller than N
		   -links N	   Number of links is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
				   or exactly N
		   -print	   Print (default and assumed)
		   -print0	   Delimit output with null characters rather than
				   newlines
		   -exec CMD ARG ; Run CMD with all instances of {} replaced by the
				   matching files
		   -prune	   Stop traversing current subtree
		   (EXPR)	   Group an expression

       fold
	   fold [-bs] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]...

	   Wrap input lines in each FILE (or stdin), writing to stdout

	   Options:

		   -b	   Count bytes rather than columns
		   -s	   Break at spaces
		   -w	   Use WIDTH columns instead of 80

       free
	   free [-b/k/m/g]

	   Display the amount of free and used system memory

       freeramdisk
	   freeramdisk DEVICE

	   Free all memory used by the specified ramdisk

       fsck.minix
	   fsck.minix [-larvsmf] BLOCKDEV

	   Check MINIX filesystem

	   Options:

		   -l	   List all filenames
		   -r	   Perform interactive repairs
		   -a	   Perform automatic repairs
		   -v	   Verbose
		   -s	   Output superblock information
		   -m	   Show "mode not cleared" warnings
		   -f	   Force file system check

       ftpget
	   ftpget [OPTIONS] HOST [LOCAL_FILE] REMOTE_FILE

	   Retrieve a remote file via FTP

	   Options:

		   -c,--continue   Continue previous transfer
		   -v,--verbose    Verbose
		   -u,--username   Username
		   -p,--password   Password
		   -P,--port	   Port number

       ftpput
	   ftpput [OPTIONS] HOST [REMOTE_FILE] LOCAL_FILE

	   Store a local file on a remote machine via FTP

	   Options:

		   -v,--verbose    Verbose
		   -u,--username   Username
		   -p,--password   Password
		   -P,--port	   Port number

       getopt
	   getopt [OPTIONS]

	   Options:

		   -a,--alternative		   Allow long options starting with single -
		   -l,--longoptions=longopts	   Long options to be recognized
		   -n,--name=progname		   The name under which errors are reported
		   -o,--options=optstring	   Short options to be recognized
		   -q,--quiet			   Disable error reporting by getopt(3)
		   -Q,--quiet-output		   No normal output
		   -s,--shell=shell		   Set shell quoting conventions
		   -T,--test			   Test for getopt(1) version
		   -u,--unquoted		   Don't quote the output

       getty
	   getty [OPTIONS] BAUD_RATE TTY [TERMTYPE]

	   Open a tty, prompt for a login name, then invoke /bin/login

	   Options:

		   -h		   Enable hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control
		   -i		   Don't display /etc/issue before running login
		   -L		   Local line, don't do carrier detect
		   -m		   Get baud rate from modem's CONNECT status message
		   -w		   Wait for a CR or LF before sending /etc/issue
		   -n		   Don't prompt the user for a login name
		   -f ISSUE_FILE   Display ISSUE_FILE instead of /etc/issue
		   -l LOGIN	   Invoke LOGIN instead of /bin/login
		   -t SEC	   Terminate after SEC if no username is read
		   -I INITSTR	   Send INITSTR before anything else
		   -H HOST	   Log HOST into the utmp file as the hostname

       grep
	   grep [-HhnlLoqvsriwFEz] [-m N] [-A/B/C N] PATTERN/-e PATTERN.../-f FILE [FILE]...

	   Search for PATTERN in FILEs (or stdin)

	   Options:

		   -H	   Add 'filename:' prefix
		   -h	   Do not add 'filename:' prefix
		   -n	   Add 'line_no:' prefix
		   -l	   Show only names of files that match
		   -L	   Show only names of files that don't match
		   -c	   Show only count of matching lines
		   -o	   Show only the matching part of line
		   -q	   Quiet. Return 0 if PATTERN is found, 1 otherwise
		   -v	   Select non-matching lines
		   -s	   Suppress open and read errors
		   -r	   Recurse
		   -i	   Ignore case
		   -w	   Match whole words only
		   -F	   PATTERN is a literal (not regexp)
		   -E	   PATTERN is an extended regexp
		   -z	   Input is NUL terminated
		   -m N    Match up to N times per file
		   -A N    Print N lines of trailing context
		   -B N    Print N lines of leading context
		   -C N    Same as '-A N -B N'
		   -e PTRN Pattern to match
		   -f FILE Read pattern from file

       gunzip
	   gunzip [-cft] [FILE]...

	   Decompress FILEs (or stdin)

	   Options:

		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force
		   -t	   Test file integrity

       gzip
	   gzip [-cfd] [FILE]...

	   Compress FILEs (or stdin)

	   Options:

		   -d	   Decompress
		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force

       head
	   head [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

	   Print first 10 lines of each FILE (or stdin) to stdout.  With more than one FILE,
	   precede each with a filename header.

	   Options:

		   -n N[kbm]	   Print first N lines
		   -c N[kbm]	   Print first N bytes
		   -q		   Never print headers
		   -v		   Always print headers

	   N may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (x1024^2).

       hexdump
	   hexdump [-bcCdefnosvx] [FILE]...

	   Display FILEs (or stdin) in a user specified format

	   Options:

		   -b		   One-byte octal display
		   -c		   One-byte character display
		   -C		   Canonical hex+ASCII, 16 bytes per line
		   -d		   Two-byte decimal display
		   -e FORMAT STRING
		   -f FORMAT FILE
		   -n LENGTH	   Interpret only LENGTH bytes of input
		   -o		   Two-byte octal display
		   -s OFFSET	   Skip OFFSET bytes
		   -v		   Display all input data
		   -x		   Two-byte hexadecimal display

       hostid
	   hostid

	   Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine

       hostname
	   hostname [OPTIONS] [HOSTNAME | -F FILE]

	   Get or set hostname or DNS domain name

	   Options:

		   -s	   Short
		   -i	   Addresses for the hostname
		   -d	   DNS domain name
		   -f	   Fully qualified domain name
		   -F FILE Use FILE's content as hostname

       httpd
	   httpd [-ifv[v]] [-c CONFFILE] [-p [IP:]PORT] [-r REALM] [-h HOME] or httpd -d/-e
	   STRING

	   Listen for incoming HTTP requests

	   Options:

		   -i		   Inetd mode
		   -f		   Don't daemonize
		   -v[v]	   Verbose
		   -p [IP:]PORT    Bind to IP:PORT (default *:80)
		   -r REALM	   Authentication Realm for Basic Authentication
		   -h HOME	   Home directory (default .)
		   -c FILE	   Configuration file (default {/etc,HOME}/httpd.conf)
		   -e STRING	   HTML encode STRING
		   -d STRING	   URL decode STRING

       hwclock
	   hwclock [-r|--show] [-s|--hctosys] [-w|--systohc] [-l|--localtime] [-u|--utc] [-f
	   FILE]

	   Query and set hardware clock (RTC)

	   Options:

		   -r	   Show hardware clock time
		   -s	   Set system time from hardware clock
		   -w	   Set hardware clock to system time
		   -u	   Hardware clock is in UTC
		   -l	   Hardware clock is in local time
		   -f FILE Use specified device (e.g. /dev/rtc2)

       id  id [OPTIONS] [USER]

	   Print information about USER or the current user

	   Options:

		   -u	   User ID
		   -g	   Group ID
		   -G	   Supplementary group IDs
		   -n	   Print names instead of numbers
		   -r	   Print real ID instead of effective ID

       ifconfig
	   ifconfig [-a] interface [address]

	   Configure a network interface

	   Options:

		   [add ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
		   [del ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
		   [[-]broadcast [ADDRESS]] [[-]pointopoint [ADDRESS]]
		   [netmask ADDRESS] [dstaddr ADDRESS]
		   [outfill NN] [keepalive NN]
		   [hw ether|infiniband ADDRESS] [metric NN] [mtu NN]
		   [[-]trailers] [[-]arp] [[-]allmulti]
		   [multicast] [[-]promisc] [txqueuelen NN] [[-]dynamic]
		   [mem_start NN] [io_addr NN] [irq NN]
		   [up|down] ...

       ifdown
	   ifdown [-anmvf] [-i FILE] IFACE...

	   Options:

		   -a	   De/configure all interfaces automatically
		   -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
		   -n	   Print out what would happen, but don't do it
			   (note: doesn't disable mappings)
		   -m	   Don't run any mappings
		   -v	   Print out what would happen before doing it
		   -f	   Force de/configuration

       ifup
	   ifup [-anmvf] [-i FILE] IFACE...

	   Options:

		   -a	   De/configure all interfaces automatically
		   -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
		   -n	   Print out what would happen, but don't do it
			   (note: doesn't disable mappings)
		   -m	   Don't run any mappings
		   -v	   Print out what would happen before doing it
		   -f	   Force de/configuration

       init
	   init

	   Init is the parent of all processes

       ionice
	   ionice [-c 1-3] [-n 0-7] [-p PID] [PROG]

	   Change I/O priority and class

	   Options:

		   -c	   Class. 1:realtime 2:best-effort 3:idle
		   -n	   Priority

       ip  ip [OPTIONS] {address | route | link | tunnel | rule} {COMMAND}

	   ip [OPTIONS] OBJECT {COMMAND} where OBJECT := {address | route | link | tunnel | rule}
	   OPTIONS := { -f[amily] { inet | inet6 | link } | -o[neline] }

       ipcalc
	   ipcalc [OPTIONS] ADDRESS[[/]NETMASK] [NETMASK]

	   Calculate IP network settings from a IP address

	   Options:

		   -b,--broadcast  Display calculated broadcast address
		   -n,--network    Display calculated network address
		   -m,--netmask    Display default netmask for IP
		   -p,--prefix	   Display the prefix for IP/NETMASK
		   -h,--hostname   Display first resolved host name
		   -s,--silent	   Don't ever display error messages

       kill
	   kill [-l] [-SIG] PID...

	   Send a signal (default: TERM) to given PIDs

	   Options:

		   -l	   List all signal names and numbers

       killall
	   killall [-l] [-q] [-SIG] PROCESS_NAME...

	   Send a signal (default: TERM) to given processes

	   Options:

		   -l	   List all signal names and numbers
		   -q	   Don't complain if no processes were killed

       klogd
	   klogd [-c N] [-n]

	   Kernel logger

	   Options:

		   -c N    Only messages with level < N are printed to console
		   -n	   Run in foreground

       last
	   last

	   Show listing of the last users that logged into the system

       length
	   length STRING

	   Print STRING's length

       less
	   less [-EMNmh~I?] [FILE]...

	   View FILE (or stdin) one screenful at a time

	   Options:

		   -E	   Quit once the end of a file is reached
		   -M,-m   Display status line with line numbers
			   and percentage through the file
		   -N	   Prefix line number to each line
		   -I	   Ignore case in all searches
		   -~	   Suppress ~s displayed past the end of the file

       ln  ln [OPTIONS] TARGET... LINK|DIR

	   Create a link LINK or DIR/TARGET to the specified TARGET(s)

	   Options:

		   -s	   Make symlinks instead of hardlinks
		   -f	   Remove existing destinations
		   -n	   Don't dereference symlinks - treat like normal file
		   -b	   Make a backup of the target (if exists) before link operation
		   -S suf  Use suffix instead of ~ when making backup files

       loadfont
	   loadfont < font

	   Load a console font from stdin

       loadkmap
	   loadkmap < keymap

	   Load a binary keyboard translation table from stdin

       logger
	   logger [OPTIONS] [MESSAGE]

	   Write MESSAGE (or stdin) to syslog

	   Options:

		   -s	   Log to stderr as well as the system log
		   -t TAG  Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name)
		   -p PRIO Priority (numeric or facility.level pair)

       login
	   login [-p] [-h HOST] [[-f] USER]

	   Begin a new session on the system

	   Options:

		   -f	   Don't authenticate (user already authenticated)
		   -h	   Name of the remote host
		   -p	   Preserve environment

       logname
	   logname

	   Print the name of the current user

       logread
	   logread [-f]

	   Show messages in syslogd's circular buffer

	   Options:

		   -f	   Output data as log grows

       losetup
	   losetup [-o OFS] LOOPDEV FILE - associate loop devices      losetup -d LOOPDEV -
	   disassociate      losetup [-f] - show

	   Options:

		   -o OFS  Start OFS bytes into FILE
		   -f	   Show first free loop device

       ls  ls [-1AacCdeFilnpLRrSsTtuvwxXhk] [FILE]...

	   List directory contents

	   Options:

		   -1	   List in a single column
		   -A	   Don't list . and ..
		   -a	   Don't hide entries starting with .
		   -C	   List by columns
		   -c	   With -l: sort by ctime
		   --color[={always,never,auto}]   Control coloring
		   -d	   List directory entries instead of contents
		   -e	   List full date and time
		   -F	   Append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries
		   -i	   List inode numbers
		   -l	   Long listing format
		   -n	   List numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names
		   -p	   Append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries
		   -L	   List entries pointed to by symlinks
		   -R	   Recurse
		   -r	   Sort in reverse order
		   -S	   Sort by file size
		   -s	   List the size of each file, in blocks
		   -T N    Assume tabstop every N columns
		   -t	   With -l: sort by modification time
		   -u	   With -l: sort by access time
		   -v	   Sort by version
		   -w N    Assume the terminal is N columns wide
		   -x	   List by lines
		   -X	   Sort by extension
		   -h	   List sizes in human readable format (1K 243M 2G)

       lzcat
	   lzcat FILE

	   Decompress to stdout

       makedevs
	   makedevs [-d device_table] rootdir

	   Create a range of special files as specified in a device table.  Device table entries
	   take the form of:

	   <type> <mode> <uid> <gid> <major> <minor> <start> <inc> <count> Where name is the file
	   name, type can be one of:	  f    Regular file	 d    Directory
		c    Character device	   b	Block device	  p    Fifo (named pipe) uid is
	   the user id for the target file, gid is the group id for the target file. The rest of
	   the entries (major, minor, etc) apply to to device special files. A '-' may be used
	   for blank entries.

       md5sum
	   md5sum [FILE]...
	      or: md5sum -c [-sw] [FILE]

	   Print or check MD5 checksums

	   Options:

		   -c	   Check sums against given list
		   -s	   Don't output anything, status code shows success
		   -w	   Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

       mdev
	   mdev [-s]

		   -s	   Scan /sys and populate /dev during system boot

	   It can be run by kernel as a hotplug helper. To activate it:
	    echo /sbin/mdev > /proc/sys/kernel/hotplug

       mesg
	   mesg [y|n]

	   Control write access to your terminal      y    Allow write access to your terminal
		n    Disallow write access to your terminal

       microcom
	   microcom [-d DELAY] [-t TIMEOUT] [-s SPEED] [-X] TTY

	   Copy bytes for stdin to TTY and from TTY to stdout

	   Options:

		   -d	   Wait up to DELAY ms for TTY output before sending every
			   next byte to it
		   -t	   Exit if both stdin and TTY are silent for TIMEOUT ms
		   -s	   Set serial line to SPEED
		   -X	   Disable special meaning of NUL and Ctrl-X from stdin

       mkdir
	   mkdir [OPTIONS] DIRECTORY...

	   Create DIRECTORY

	   Options:

		   -m MODE Mode
		   -p	   No error if exists; make parent directories as needed

       mkfifo
	   mkfifo [-m MODE] NAME

	   Create named pipe

	   Options:

		   -m MODE Mode (default a=rw)

       mkfs.minix
	   mkfs.minix [-c | -l FILE] [-nXX] [-iXX] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]

	   Make a MINIX filesystem

	   Options:

		   -c		   Check device for bad blocks
		   -n [14|30]	   Maximum length of filenames
		   -i INODES	   Number of inodes for the filesystem
		   -l FILE	   Read bad blocks list from FILE
		   -v		   Make version 2 filesystem

       mknod
	   mknod [-m MODE] NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR

	   Create a special file (block, character, or pipe)

	   Options:

		   -m MODE Creation mode (default a=rw)
	   TYPE:
		   b	   Block device
		   c or u  Character device
		   p	   Named pipe (MAJOR and MINOR are ignored)

       mkswap
	   mkswap [-L LBL] BLOCKDEV [KBYTES]

	   Prepare BLOCKDEV to be used as swap partition

	   Options:

		   -L LBL  Label

       mktemp
	   mktemp [-dt] [-p DIR] [TEMPLATE]

	   Create a temporary file with name based on TEMPLATE and print its name.  TEMPLATE must
	   end with XXXXXX (e.g. [/dir/]nameXXXXXX).

	   Options:

		   -d	   Make a directory instead of a file
		   -t	   Generate a path rooted in temporary directory
		   -p DIR  Use DIR as a temporary directory (implies -t)

	   For -t or -p, directory is chosen as follows: $TMPDIR if set, else -p DIR, else /tmp

       more
	   more [FILE]...

	   View FILE (or stdin) one screenful at a time

       mount
	   mount [OPTIONS] [-o OPTS] DEVICE NODE

	   Mount a filesystem. Filesystem autodetection requires /proc.

	   Options:

		   -a		   Mount all filesystems in fstab
		   -f		   Dry run
		   -i		   Don't run mount helper
		   -r		   Read-only mount
		   -w		   Read-write mount (default)
		   -t FSTYPE	   Filesystem type
		   -O OPT	   Mount only filesystems with option OPT (-a only)
	   -o OPT:
		   loop 	   Ignored (loop devices are autodetected)
		   [a]sync	   Writes are [a]synchronous
		   [no]atime	   Disable/enable updates to inode access times
		   [no]diratime    Disable/enable atime updates to directories
		   [no]relatime    Disable/enable atime updates relative to modification time
		   [no]dev	   (Dis)allow use of special device files
		   [no]exec	   (Dis)allow use of executable files
		   [no]suid	   (Dis)allow set-user-id-root programs
		   [r]shared	   Convert [recursively] to a shared subtree
		   [r]slave	   Convert [recursively] to a slave subtree
		   [r]private	   Convert [recursively] to a private subtree
		   [un]bindable    Make mount point [un]able to be bind mounted
		   bind 	   Bind a file or directory to another location
		   move 	   Relocate an existing mount point
		   remount	   Remount a mounted filesystem, changing flags
		   ro/rw	   Same as -r/-w

	   There are filesystem-specific -o flags.

       mt  mt [-f device] opcode value

	   Control magnetic tape drive operation

	   Available Opcodes:

	   bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erase fsf fsfm fsr fss load lock
	   mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2 ras3 reset retension rewind rewoffline seek setblk
	   setdensity setpart tell unload unlock weof wset

       mv  mv [-fin] SOURCE DEST or: mv [-fin] SOURCE... DIRECTORY

	   Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

	   Options:

		   -f	   Don't prompt before overwriting
		   -i	   Interactive, prompt before overwrite
		   -n	   Don't overwrite an existing file

       nameif
	   nameif [-s] [-c FILE] [{IFNAME MACADDR}]

	   Rename network interface while it in the down state

	   Options:

		   -c FILE	   Use configuration file (default: /etc/mactab)
		   -s		   Use syslog (LOCAL0 facility)
		   IFNAME MACADDR  new_interface_name interface_mac_address

       nc  nc [-iN] [-wN] [-l] [-p PORT] [-f FILE|IPADDR PORT] [-e PROG]

	   Open a pipe to IP:PORT or FILE

	   Options:

		   -e PROG Run PROG after connect
		   -l	   Listen mode, for inbound connects
			   (use -l twice with -e for persistent server)
		   -p PORT Local port
		   -w SEC  Timeout for connect
		   -i SEC  Delay interval for lines sent
		   -f FILE Use file (ala /dev/ttyS0) instead of network

       netstat
	   netstat [-ral] [-tuwx] [-en]

	   Display networking information

	   Options:

		   -r	   Routing table
		   -a	   All sockets
		   -l	   Listening sockets
			   Else: connected sockets
		   -t	   TCP sockets
		   -u	   UDP sockets
		   -w	   Raw sockets
		   -x	   Unix sockets
			   Else: all socket types
		   -e	   Other/more information
		   -n	   Don't resolve names

       nslookup
	   nslookup [HOST] [SERVER]

	   Query the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOST optionally using a specified
	   DNS server

       od  od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOovXx] [-t TYPE] [FILE]

	   Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of FILE (or stdin) to
	   stdout

       openvt
	   openvt [-c N] [-sw] [PROG ARGS]

	   Start PROG on a new virtual terminal

	   Options:

		   -c N    Use specified VT
		   -s	   Switch to the VT
		   -w	   Wait for PROG to exit

       passwd
	   passwd [OPTIONS] [USER]

	   Change USER's password. If no USER is specified, changes the password for the current
	   user.

	   Options:

		   -a ALG  Algorithm to use for password (des, md5)
		   -d	   Delete password for the account
		   -l	   Lock (disable) account
		   -u	   Unlock (re-enable) account

       patch
	   patch [OPTIONS] [ORIGFILE [PATCHFILE]]

		   -p,--strip N 	   Strip N leading components from file names
		   -i,--input DIFF	   Read DIFF instead of stdin
		   -R,--reverse 	   Reverse patch
		   -N,--forward 	   Ignore already applied patches
		   --dry-run		   Don't actually change files
		   -E,--remove-empty-files Remove output files if they become empty

       pidof
	   pidof [NAME]...

	   List PIDs of all processes with names that match NAMEs

       ping
	   ping [OPTIONS] HOST

	   Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

	   Options:

		   -4,-6	   Force IP or IPv6 name resolution
		   -c CNT	   Send only CNT pings
		   -s SIZE	   Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default:56)
		   -I IFACE/IP	   Use interface or IP address as source
		   -W SEC	   Seconds to wait for the first response (default:10)
				   (after all -c CNT packets are sent)
		   -w SEC	   Seconds until ping exits (default:infinite)
				   (can exit earlier with -c CNT)
		   -q		   Quiet, only displays output at start
				   and when finished

       ping6
	   ping6 [OPTIONS] HOST

	   Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

	   Options:

		   -c CNT	   Send only CNT pings
		   -s SIZE	   Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default:56)
		   -I IFACE/IP	   Use interface or IP address as source
		   -q		   Quiet, only displays output at start
				   and when finished

       pivot_root
	   pivot_root NEW_ROOT PUT_OLD

	   Move the current root file system to PUT_OLD and make NEW_ROOT the new root file
	   system

       printf
	   printf FORMAT [ARGUMENT]...

	   Format and print ARGUMENT(s) according to FORMAT, where FORMAT controls the output
	   exactly as in C printf

       ps  ps [-o COL1,COL2=HEADER] [-T]

	   Show list of processes

	   Options:

		   -o COL1,COL2=HEADER	   Select columns for display
		   -T			   Show threads

       pwd pwd

	   Print the full filename of the current working directory

       rdate
	   rdate [-sp] HOST

	   Get and possibly set the system date and time from a remote HOST

	   Options:

		   -s	   Set the system date and time (default)
		   -p	   Print the date and time

       readlink
	   readlink [-fnv] FILE

	   Display the value of a symlink

	   Options:

		   -f	   Canonicalize by following all symlinks
		   -n	   Don't add newline
		   -v	   Verbose

       realpath
	   realpath FILE...

	   Return the absolute pathnames of given FILE

       renice
	   renice {{-n INCREMENT} | PRIORITY} [[-p | -g | -u] ID...]

	   Change scheduling priority for a running process

	   Options:

		   -n	   Adjust current nice value (smaller is faster)
		   -p	   Process id(s) (default)
		   -g	   Process group id(s)
		   -u	   Process user name(s) and/or id(s)

       reset
	   reset

	   Reset the screen

       rm  rm [-irf] FILE...

	   Remove (unlink) FILEs

	   Options:

		   -i	   Always prompt before removing
		   -f	   Never prompt
		   -R,-r   Recurse

       rmdir
	   rmdir [OPTIONS] DIRECTORY...

	   Remove DIRECTORY if it is empty

	   Options:

		   -p|--parents    Include parents
		   --ignore-fail-on-non-empty

       route
	   route [{add|del|delete}]

	   Edit kernel routing tables

	   Options:

		   -n	   Don't resolve names
		   -e	   Display other/more information
		   -A inet{6}	   Select address family

       rpm rpm -i PACKAGE.rpm; rpm -qp[ildc] PACKAGE.rpm

	   Manipulate RPM packages

	   Commands:

		   -i	   Install package
		   -qp	   Query package
	   Options:

		   -i	   Show information
		   -l	   List contents
		   -d	   List documents
		   -c	   List config files

       rpm2cpio
	   rpm2cpio package.rpm

	   Output a cpio archive of the rpm file

       run-parts
	   run-parts [-t] [-a ARG] [-u MASK] DIRECTORY

	   Run a bunch of scripts in DIRECTORY

	   Options:

		   -t	   Print what would be run, but don't actually run anything
		   -a ARG  Pass ARG as argument for every program
		   -u MASK Set the umask to MASK before running every program

       sed sed [-efinr] SED_CMD [FILE]...

	   Options:

		   -e CMD  Add CMD to sed commands to be executed
		   -f FILE Add FILE contents to sed commands to be executed
		   -i	   Edit files in-place (else sends result to stdout)
		   -n	   Suppress automatic printing of pattern space
		   -r	   Use extended regex syntax

	   If no -e or -f, the first non-option argument is the sed command string.  Remaining
	   arguments are input files (stdin if none).

       setkeycodes
	   setkeycodes SCANCODE KEYCODE...

	   Set entries into the kernel's scancode-to-keycode map, allowing unusual keyboards to
	   generate usable keycodes.

	   SCANCODE may be either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal), and KEYCODE is given in decimal.

       sha1sum
	   sha1sum [FILE]...
	      or: sha1sum -c [-sw] [FILE]

	   Print or check SHA1 checksums

	   Options:

		   -c	   Check sums against given list
		   -s	   Don't output anything, status code shows success
		   -w	   Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

       sha256sum
	   sha256sum [FILE]...
	      or: sha256sum -c [-sw] [FILE]

	   Print or check SHA256 checksums

	   Options:

		   -c	   Check sums against given list
		   -s	   Don't output anything, status code shows success
		   -w	   Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

       sha512sum
	   sha512sum [FILE]...
	      or: sha512sum -c [-sw] [FILE]

	   Print or check SHA512 checksums

	   Options:

		   -c	   Check sums against given list
		   -s	   Don't output anything, status code shows success
		   -w	   Warn about improperly formatted checksum lines

       sleep
	   sleep [N]...

	   Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where each arg can have an
	   optional suffix of (s)econds, (m)inutes, (h)ours, or (d)ays

       sort
	   sort [-nrugMcszbdfimSTokt] [-o FILE] [-k start[.offset][opts][,end[.offset][opts]] [-t
	   CHAR] [FILE]...

	   Sort lines of text

	   Options:

		   -b	   Ignore leading blanks
		   -c	   Check whether input is sorted
		   -d	   Dictionary order (blank or alphanumeric only)
		   -f	   Ignore case
		   -g	   General numerical sort
		   -i	   Ignore unprintable characters
		   -k	   Sort key
		   -M	   Sort month
		   -n	   Sort numbers
		   -o	   Output to file
		   -k	   Sort by key
		   -t CHAR Key separator
		   -r	   Reverse sort order
		   -s	   Stable (don't sort ties alphabetically)
		   -u	   Suppress duplicate lines
		   -z	   Lines are terminated by NUL, not newline
		   -mST    Ignored for GNU compatibility

       start-stop-daemon
	   start-stop-daemon [OPTIONS] [-S|-K] ... [-- ARGS...]

	   Search for matching processes, and then -K: stop all matching processes.  -S: start a
	   process unless a matching process is found.

	   Process matching:

		   -u,--user USERNAME|UID  Match only this user's processes
		   -n,--name NAME	   Match processes with NAME
					   in comm field in /proc/PID/stat
		   -x,--exec EXECUTABLE    Match processes with this command
					   in /proc/PID/cmdline
		   -p,--pidfile FILE	   Match a process with PID from the file
		   All specified conditions must match
	   -S only:
		   -x,--exec EXECUTABLE    Program to run
		   -a,--startas NAME	   Zeroth argument
		   -b,--background	   Background
		   -N,--nicelevel N	   Change nice level
		   -c,--chuid USER[:[GRP]] Change to user/group
		   -m,--make-pidfile	   Write PID to the pidfile specified by -p
	   -K only:
		   -s,--signal SIG	   Signal to send
		   -t,--test		   Match only, exit with 0 if a process is found
	   Other:

		   -o,--oknodo		   Exit with status 0 if nothing is done
		   -v,--verbose 	   Verbose
		   -q,--quiet		   Quiet

       strings
	   strings [-afo] [-n LEN] [FILE]...

	   Display printable strings in a binary file

	   Options:

		   -a	   Scan whole file (default)
		   -f	   Precede strings with filenames
		   -n LEN  At least LEN characters form a string (default 4)
		   -o	   Precede strings with decimal offsets

       stty
	   stty [-a|g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...

	   Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline, and deviations from stty sane

	   Options:

		   -F DEVICE	   Open device instead of stdin
		   -a		   Print all current settings in human-readable form
		   -g		   Print in stty-readable form
		   [SETTING]	   See manpage

       su  su [OPTIONS] [-] [USERNAME]

	   Change user id or become root

	   Options:

		   -p,-m   Preserve environment
		   -c CMD  Command to pass to 'sh -c'
		   -s SH   Shell to use instead of default shell

       sulogin
	   sulogin [-t N] [TTY]

	   Single user login

	   Options:

		   -t N    Timeout

       swapoff
	   swapoff [-a] [DEVICE]

	   Stop swapping on DEVICE

	   Options:

		   -a	   Stop swapping on all swap devices

       swapon
	   swapon [-a] [DEVICE]

	   Start swapping on DEVICE

	   Options:

		   -a	   Start swapping on all swap devices

       sync
	   sync

	   Write all buffered blocks to disk

       syslogd
	   syslogd [OPTIONS]

	   System logging utility.  This version of syslogd ignores /etc/syslog.conf

	   Options:

		   -n		   Run in foreground
		   -O FILE	   Log to given file (default:/var/log/messages)
		   -l N 	   Set local log level
		   -S		   Smaller logging output
		   -R HOST[:PORT]  Log to IP or hostname on PORT (default PORT=514/UDP)
		   -L		   Log locally and via network (default is network only if -R)
		   -C[size(KiB)]   Log to shared mem buffer (read it using logread)

       tac tac [FILE]...

	   Concatenate FILEs and print them in reverse

       tail
	   tail [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

	   Print last 10 lines of each FILE (or stdin) to stdout.  With more than one FILE,
	   precede each with a filename header.

	   Options:

		   -f		   Print data as file grows
		   -s SECONDS	   Wait SECONDS between reads with -f
		   -n N[kbm]	   Print last N lines
		   -c N[kbm]	   Print last N bytes
		   -q		   Never print headers
		   -v		   Always print headers

	   N may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (x1024^2).  If N starts with a '+',
	   output begins with the Nth item from the start of each file, not from the end.

       tar tar -[cxtzjaZmvO] [-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [FILE]...

	   Create, extract, or list files from a tar file

	   Operation:

		   c	   Create
		   x	   Extract
		   t	   List
	   Options:

		   f	   Name of TARFILE ('-' for stdin/out)
		   C	   Change to DIR before operation
		   v	   Verbose
		   z	   (De)compress using gzip
		   j	   (De)compress using bzip2
		   a	   (De)compress using lzma
		   Z	   (De)compress using compress
		   O	   Extract to stdout
		   h	   Follow symlinks
		   m	   Don't restore mtime

       tee tee [-ai] [FILE]...

	   Copy stdin to each FILE, and also to stdout

	   Options:

		   -a	   Append to the given FILEs, don't overwrite
		   -i	   Ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT)

       telnet
	   telnet [-a] [-l USER] HOST [PORT]

	   Connect to telnet server

	   Options:

		   -a	   Automatic login with $USER variable
		   -l USER Automatic login as USER

       telnetd
	   telnetd [OPTIONS]

	   Handle incoming telnet connections via inetd

	   Options:

		   -l LOGIN	   Exec LOGIN on connect
		   -f ISSUE_FILE   Display ISSUE_FILE instead of /etc/issue
		   -K		   Close connection as soon as login exits
				   (normally wait until all programs close slave pty)

       test
	   test EXPRESSION ]

	   Check file types, compare values etc. Return a 0/1 exit code depending on logical
	   value of EXPRESSION

       tftp
	   tftp [OPTIONS] HOST [PORT]

	   Transfer a file from/to tftp server

	   Options:

		   -l FILE Local FILE
		   -r FILE Remote FILE
		   -g	   Get file
		   -p	   Put file
		   -b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets

       time
	   time [-v] PROG ARGS

	   Run PROG, display resource usage when it exits

	   Options:

		   -v	   Verbose

       timeout
	   timeout [-t SECS] [-s SIG] PROG ARGS

	   Runs PROG. Sends SIG to it if it is not gone in SECS seconds.  Defaults: SECS: 10,
	   SIG: TERM.

       top top [-b] [-nCOUNT] [-dSECONDS]

	   Provide a view of process activity in real time.  Read the status of all processes
	   from /proc each SECONDS and display a screenful of them.

       touch
	   touch [-c] [-d DATE] [-r FILE] FILE [FILE]...

	   Update the last-modified date on the given FILE[s]

	   Options:

		   -c	   Don't create files
		   -d DT   Date/time to use
		   -r FILE Use FILE's date/time

       tr  tr [-cds] STRING1 [STRING2]

	   Translate, squeeze, or delete characters from stdin, writing to stdout

	   Options:

		   -c	   Take complement of STRING1
		   -d	   Delete input characters coded STRING1
		   -s	   Squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character

       traceroute
	   traceroute [-46FIldnrv] [-f 1ST_TTL] [-m MAXTTL] [-p PORT] [-q PROBES]      [-s
	   SRC_IP] [-t TOS] [-w WAIT_SEC] [-g GATEWAY] [-i IFACE]      [-z PAUSE_MSEC] HOST
	   [BYTES]

	   Trace the route to HOST

	   Options:

		   -4,-6   Force IP or IPv6 name resolution
		   -F	   Set the don't fragment bit
		   -I	   Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams
		   -l	   Display the TTL value of the returned packet
		   -d	   Set SO_DEBUG options to socket
		   -n	   Print numeric addresses
		   -r	   Bypass routing tables, send directly to HOST
		   -v	   Verbose
		   -m	   Max time-to-live (max number of hops)
		   -p	   Base UDP port number used in probes
			   (default 33434)
		   -q	   Number of probes per TTL (default 3)
		   -s	   IP address to use as the source address
		   -t	   Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)
		   -w	   Time in seconds to wait for a response (default 3)
		   -g	   Loose source route gateway (8 max)

       traceroute6
	   traceroute6 [-dnrv] [-m MAXTTL] [-p PORT] [-q PROBES]      [-s SRC_IP] [-t TOS] [-w
	   WAIT_SEC] [-i IFACE]      HOST [BYTES]

	   Trace the route to HOST

	   Options:

		   -d	   Set SO_DEBUG options to socket
		   -n	   Print numeric addresses
		   -r	   Bypass routing tables, send directly to HOST
		   -v	   Verbose
		   -m	   Max time-to-live (max number of hops)
		   -p	   Base UDP port number used in probes
			   (default is 33434)
		   -q	   Number of probes per TTL (default 3)
		   -s	   IP address to use as the source address
		   -t	   Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)
		   -w	   Time in seconds to wait for a response (default 3)

       true
	   true

	   Return an exit code of TRUE (0)

       tty tty

	   Print file name of stdin's terminal

	   Options:

		   -s	   Print nothing, only return exit status

       tunctl
	   tunctl [-f device] ([-t name] | -d name)

	   Create or delete tun interfaces

	   Options:

		   -f name	   tun device (/dev/net/tun)
		   -t name	   Create iface 'name'
		   -d name	   Delete iface 'name'

       udhcpc
	   udhcpc [-fbnqoCR] [-i IFACE] [-r IP] [-s PROG] [-p PIDFILE]	    [-H HOSTNAME] [-V
	   VENDOR] [-x OPT:VAL]... [-O OPT]...

		   -i,--interface IFACE    Interface to use (default eth0)
		   -p,--pidfile FILE	   Create pidfile
		   -s,--script PROG	   Run PROG at DHCP events (default /usr/share/udhcpc/default.script)
		   -t,--retries N	   Send up to N discover packets
		   -T,--timeout N	   Pause between packets (default 3 seconds)
		   -A,--tryagain N	   Wait N seconds after failure (default 20)
		   -f,--foreground	   Run in foreground
		   -b,--background	   Background if lease is not obtained
		   -n,--now		   Exit if lease is not obtained
		   -q,--quit		   Exit after obtaining lease
		   -R,--release 	   Release IP on exit
		   -S,--syslog		   Log to syslog too
		   -a,--arping		   Use arping to validate offered address
		   -O,--request-option OPT Request option OPT from server (cumulative)
		   -o,--no-default-options Don't request any options (unless -O is given)
		   -r,--request IP	   Request this IP address
		   -x OPT:VAL		   Include option OPT in sent packets (cumulative)
					   Examples of string, numeric, and hex byte opts:
					   -x hostname:bbox - option 12
					   -x lease:3600 - option 51 (lease time)
					   -x 0x3d:0100BEEFC0FFEE - option 61 (client id)
		   -F,--fqdn NAME	   Ask server to update DNS mapping for NAME
		   -H,-h,--hostname NAME   Send NAME as client hostname (default none)
		   -V,--vendorclass VENDOR Vendor identifier (default 'udhcp VERSION')
		   -C,--clientid-none	   Don't send MAC as client identifier

       udhcpd
	   udhcpd [-fS] [CONFFILE]

	   DHCP server

		   -f	   Run in foreground
		   -S	   Log to syslog too

       umount
	   umount [OPTIONS] FILESYSTEM|DIRECTORY

	   Unmount file systems

	   Options:

		   -a	   Unmount all file systems
		   -r	   Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy
		   -l	   Lazy umount (detach filesystem)
		   -f	   Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server)
		   -d	   Free loop device if it has been used

       uname
	   uname [-amnrspv]

	   Print system information

	   Options:

		   -a	   Print all
		   -m	   The machine (hardware) type
		   -n	   Hostname
		   -r	   OS release
		   -s	   OS name (default)
		   -p	   Processor type
		   -v	   OS version

       uncompress
	   uncompress [-cf] [FILE]...

	   Decompress .Z file[s]

	   Options:

		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Overwrite

       unexpand
	   unexpand [-fa][-t N] [FILE]...

	   Convert spaces to tabs, writing to stdout

	   Options:

		   -a,--all	   Convert all blanks
		   -f,--first-only Convert only leading blanks
		   -t,--tabs=N	   Tabstops every N chars

       uniq
	   uniq [-cdu][-f,s,w N] [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

	   Discard duplicate lines

	   Options:

		   -c	   Prefix lines by the number of occurrences
		   -d	   Only print duplicate lines
		   -u	   Only print unique lines
		   -f N    Skip first N fields
		   -s N    Skip first N chars (after any skipped fields)
		   -w N    Compare N characters in line

       unix2dos
	   unix2dos [-ud] [FILE]

	   Convert FILE in-place from Unix to DOS format.  When no file is given, use
	   stdin/stdout.

	   Options:

		   -u	   dos2unix
		   -d	   unix2dos

       unlzma
	   unlzma [-cf] [FILE]...

	   Decompress FILE (or stdin)

	   Options:

		   -c	   Write to stdout
		   -f	   Force

       unzip
	   unzip [-opts[modifiers]] FILE[.zip] [LIST] [-x XLIST] [-d DIR]

	   Extract files from ZIP archives

	   Options:

		   -l	   List archive contents (with -q for short form)
		   -n	   Never overwrite files (default)
		   -o	   Overwrite
		   -p	   Send output to stdout
		   -q	   Quiet
		   -x XLST Exclude these files
		   -d DIR  Extract files into DIR

       uptime
	   uptime

	   Display the time since the last boot

       usleep
	   usleep N

	   Pause for N microseconds

       uudecode
	   uudecode [-o OUTFILE] [INFILE]

	   Uudecode a file Finds outfile name in uuencoded source unless -o is given

       uuencode
	   uuencode [-m] [INFILE] STORED_FILENAME

	   Uuencode a file to stdout

	   Options:

		   -m	   Use base64 encoding per RFC1521

       vconfig
	   vconfig COMMAND [OPTIONS]

	   Create and remove virtual ethernet devices

	   Options:

		   add		   [interface-name] [vlan_id]
		   rem		   [vlan-name]
		   set_flag	   [interface-name] [flag-num] [0 | 1]
		   set_egress_map  [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
		   set_ingress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
		   set_name_type   [name-type]

       vi  vi [OPTIONS] [FILE]...

	   Edit FILE

	   Options:

		   -c	   Initial command to run ($EXINIT also available)
		   -R	   Read-only
		   -H	   Short help regarding available features

       vlock
	   vlock [-a]

	   Lock a virtual terminal. A password is required to unlock.

	   Options:

		   -a	   Lock all VTs

       watch
	   watch [-n SEC] [-t] PROG ARGS

	   Run PROG periodically

	   Options:

		   -n	   Loop period in seconds (default 2)
		   -t	   Don't print header

       watchdog
	   watchdog [-t N[ms]] [-T N[ms]] [-F] DEV

	   Periodically write to watchdog device DEV

	   Options:

		   -T N    Reboot after N seconds if not reset (default 60)
		   -t N    Reset every N seconds (default 30)
		   -F	   Run in foreground

	   Use 500ms to specify period in milliseconds

       wc  wc [-cmlwL] [FILE]...

	   Count lines, words, and bytes for each FILE (or stdin)

	   Options:

		   -c	   Count bytes
		   -m	   Count characters
		   -l	   Count newlines
		   -w	   Count words
		   -L	   Print longest line length

       wget
	   wget [-c|--continue] [-s|--spider] [-q|--quiet] [-O|--output-document FILE]
		[--header 'header: value'] [-Y|--proxy on/off] [-P DIR]
		[--no-check-certificate] [-U|--user-agent AGENT] URL

	   Retrieve files via HTTP or FTP

	   Options:

		   -s	   Spider mode - only check file existence
		   -c	   Continue retrieval of aborted transfer
		   -q	   Quiet
		   -P DIR  Save to DIR (default .)
		   -O FILE Save to FILE ('-' for stdout)
		   -U STR  Use STR for User-Agent header
		   -Y	   Use proxy ('on' or 'off')

       which
	   which [COMMAND]...

	   Locate a COMMAND

       who who [-a]

	   Show who is logged on

	   Options:

		   -a	   Show all

       whoami
	   whoami

	   Print the user name associated with the current effective user id

       xargs
	   xargs [OPTIONS] [PROG ARGS]

	   Run PROG on every item given by stdin

	   Options:

		   -r	   Don't run command if input is empty
		   -t	   Print the command on stderr before execution
		   -e[STR] STR stops input processing
		   -n N    Pass no more than N args to PROG
		   -s N    Pass command line of no more than N bytes

       yes yes [STRING]

	   Repeatedly output a line with STRING, or 'y'

       zcat
	   zcat FILE

	   Decompress to stdout

LIBC NSS
       GNU Libc (glibc) uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure the behavior of the C
       library for the local environment, and to configure how it reads system data, such as
       passwords and group information.  This is implemented using an /etc/nsswitch.conf
       configuration file, and using one or more of the /lib/libnss_* libraries.  BusyBox tries
       to avoid using any libc calls that make use of NSS.  Some applets however, such as login
       and su, will use libc functions that require NSS.

       If you enable CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP, BusyBox will use internal functions to directly
       access the /etc/passwd, /etc/group, and /etc/shadow files without using NSS.  This may
       allow you to run your system without the need for installing any of the NSS configuration
       files and libraries.

       When used with glibc, the BusyBox 'networking' applets will similarly require that you
       install at least some of the glibc NSS stuff (in particular, /etc/nsswitch.conf,
       /lib/libnss_dns*, /lib/libnss_files*, and /lib/libresolv*).

       Shameless Plug: As an alternative, one could use a C library such as uClibc.  In addition
       to making your system significantly smaller, uClibc does not require the use of any NSS
       support files or libraries.

MAINTAINER
       Denis Vlasenko <vda.linux@googlemail.com>

AUTHORS
       The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know it or not.  If you
       have written code included in BusyBox, you should probably be listed here so you can
       obtain your bit of eternal glory.  If you should be listed here, or the description of
       what you have done needs more detail, or is incorrect, please send in an update.

       Emanuele Aina <emanuele.aina@tiscali.it>
	   run-parts

       Erik Andersen <andersen@codepoet.org>

	   Tons of new stuff, major rewrite of most of the
	   core apps, tons of new apps as noted in header files.
	   Lots of tedious effort writing these boring docs that
	   nobody is going to actually read.

       Laurence Anderson <l.d.anderson@warwick.ac.uk>

	   rpm2cpio, unzip, get_header_cpio, read_gz interface, rpm

       Jeff Angielski <jeff@theptrgroup.com>

	   ftpput, ftpget

       Edward Betts <edward@debian.org>

	   expr, hostid, logname, whoami

       John Beppu <beppu@codepoet.org>

	   du, nslookup, sort

       Brian Candler <B.Candler@pobox.com>

	   tiny-ls(ls)

       Randolph Chung <tausq@debian.org>

	   fbset, ping, hostname

       Dave Cinege <dcinege@psychosis.com>

	   more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file,
	   various fixes, Linux Router Project maintenance

       Jordan Crouse <jordan@cosmicpenguin.net>

	   ipcalc

       Magnus Damm <damm@opensource.se>

	   tftp client insmod powerpc support

       Larry Doolittle <ldoolitt@recycle.lbl.gov>

	   pristine source directory compilation, lots of patches and fixes.

       Glenn Engel <glenne@engel.org>

	   httpd

       Gennady Feldman <gfeldman@gena01.com>

	   Sysklogd (single threaded syslogd, IPC Circular buffer support,
	   logread), various fixes.

       Karl M. Hegbloom <karlheg@debian.org>

	   cp_mv.c, the test suite, various fixes to utility.c, &c.

       Daniel Jacobowitz <dan@debian.org>

	   mktemp.c

       Matt Kraai <kraai@alumni.cmu.edu>

	   documentation, bugfixes, test suite

       Stephan Linz <linz@li-pro.net>

	   ipcalc, Red Hat equivalence

       John Lombardo <john@deltanet.com>

	   tr

       Glenn McGrath <bug1@iinet.net.au>

	   Common unarchiving code and unarchiving applets, ifupdown, ftpgetput,
	   nameif, sed, patch, fold, install, uudecode.
	   Various bugfixes, review and apply numerous patches.

       Manuel Novoa III <mjn3@codepoet.org>

	   cat, head, mkfifo, mknod, rmdir, sleep, tee, tty, uniq, usleep, wc, yes,
	   mesg, vconfig, make_directory, parse_mode, dirname, mode_string,
	   get_last_path_component, simplify_path, and a number trivial libbb routines

	   also bug fixes, partial rewrites, and size optimizations in
	   ash, basename, cal, cmp, cp, df, du, echo, env, ln, logname, md5sum, mkdir,
	   mv, realpath, rm, sort, tail, touch, uname, watch, arith, human_readable,
	   interface, dutmp, ifconfig, route

       Vladimir Oleynik <dzo@simtreas.ru>

	   cmdedit; xargs(current), httpd(current);
	   ports: ash, crond, fdisk, inetd, stty, traceroute, top;
	   locale, various fixes
	   and irreconcilable critic of everything not perfect.

       Bruce Perens <bruce@pixar.com>

	   Original author of BusyBox in 1995, 1996. Some of his code can
	   still be found hiding here and there...

       Tim Riker <Tim@Rikers.org>

	   bug fixes, member of fan club

       Kent Robotti <robotti@metconnect.com>

	   reset, tons and tons of bug reports and patches.

       Chip Rosenthal <chip@unicom.com>, <crosenth@covad.com>

	   wget - Contributed by permission of Covad Communications

       Pavel Roskin <proski@gnu.org>

	   Lots of bugs fixes and patches.

       Gyepi Sam <gyepi@praxis-sw.com>

	   Remote logging feature for syslogd

       Linus Torvalds <torvalds@transmeta.com>

	   mkswap, fsck.minix, mkfs.minix

       Mark Whitley <markw@codepoet.org>

	   grep, sed, cut, xargs(previous),
	   style-guide, new-applet-HOWTO, bug fixes, etc.

       Charles P. Wright <cpwright@villagenet.com>

	   gzip, mini-netcat(nc)

       Enrique Zanardi <ezanardi@ull.es>

	   tarcat (since removed), loadkmap, various fixes, Debian maintenance

       Tito Ragusa <farmatito@tiscali.it>

	   devfsd and size optimizations in strings, openvt and deallocvt.

       Paul Fox <pgf@foxharp.boston.ma.us>

	   vi editing mode for ash, various other patches/fixes

       Roberto A. Foglietta <me@roberto.foglietta.name>

	   port: dnsd

       Bernhard Reutner-Fischer <rep.dot.nop@gmail.com>

	   misc

       Mike Frysinger <vapier@gentoo.org>

	   initial e2fsprogs, printenv, setarch, sum, misc

       Jie Zhang <jie.zhang@analog.com>

	   fixed two bugs in msh and hush (exitcode of killed processes)

version 1.18.4				    2011-09-01				       BUSYBOX(1)
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