TRACEROUTE(8) BSD System Manager's Manual TRACEROUTE(8)
traceroute -- print the route packets take to network host
traceroute [-adDeFISnrvx] [-f first_ttl] [-g gateway] [-M first_ttl] [-m max_ttl] [-P proto] [-p port] [-q nqueries] [-s src_addr] [-t tos]
[-w waittime] [-A as_server] [-z pausemsecs] host [packetlen]
The Internet is a large and complex aggregation of network hardware, connected together by gateways. Tracking the route one's packets follow
(or finding the miscreant gateway that's discarding your packets) can be difficult. traceroute utilizes the IP protocol `time to live' field
and attempts to elicit an ICMP TIME_EXCEEDED response from each gateway along the path to some host.
The only mandatory parameter is the destination host name or IP number. The default probe datagram length is 40 bytes, but this may be
increased by specifying a packet length (in bytes) after the destination host name.
Other options are:
-a Turn on AS# lookups for each hop encountered.
Turn on AS# lookups and use the given server instead of the default.
-e Firewall evasion mode. Use fixed destination ports for UDP and TCP probes. The destination port does NOT increment with each packet
Set the initial time-to-live used in the first outgoing probe packet.
-F Set the "don't fragment" bit.
-d Enable socket level debugging.
-D When an ICMP response to our probe datagram is received, print the differences between the transmitted packet and the packet quoted
by the ICMP response. A key showing the location of fields within the transmitted packet is printed, followed by the original packet
in hex, followed by the quoted packet in hex. Bytes that are unchanged in the quoted packet are shown as underscores. Note, the IP
checksum and the TTL of the quoted packet are not expected to match. By default, only one probe per hop is sent with this option.
Specify a loose source route gateway (8 maximum).
Specify a network interface to obtain the source IP address for outgoing probe packets. This is normally only useful on a multi-homed
host. (See the -s flag for another way to do this.)
-I Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams. (A synonym for "-P icmp").
Set the initial time-to-live value used in outgoing probe packets. The default is 1, i.e., start with the first hop.
Set the max time-to-live (max number of hops) used in outgoing probe packets. The default is the value of the net.inet.ip.ttl
sysctl(8) (the same default used for TCP connections).
-n Print hop addresses numerically rather than symbolically and numerically (saves a nameserver address-to-name lookup for each gateway
found on the path).
Send packets of specified IP protocol. The currently supported protocols are: UDP, TCP, GRE and ICMP. Other protocols may also be
specified (either by name or by number), though traceroute does not implement any special knowledge of their packet formats. This
option is useful for determining which router along a path may be blocking packets based on IP protocol number. But see BUGS below.
Protocol specific. For UDP and TCP, sets the base port number used in probes (default is 33434). Traceroute hopes that nothing is
listening on UDP ports base to base + nhops * nprobes - 1 at the destination host (so an ICMP PORT_UNREACHABLE message will be
returned to terminate the route tracing). If something is listening on a port in the default range, this option can be used to pick
an unused port range.
Set the number of probes per hop (default is 3, unless -D is specified, when it is 1).
-r Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached network. If the host is not on a directly-attached net-
work, an error is returned. This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface that has no route through it (e.g.,
after the interface was dropped by routed(8).
Use the following IP address (which usually is given as an IP number, not a hostname) as the source address in outgoing probe pack-
ets. On multi-homed hosts (those with more than one IP address), this option can be used to force the source address to be something
other than the IP address of the interface the probe packet is sent on. If the IP address is not one of this machine's interface
addresses, an error is returned and nothing is sent. (See the -i flag for another way to do this.)
-S Print a summary of how many probes were not answered for each hop.
-t tos Set the type-of-service in probe packets to the following value (default zero). The value must be a decimal integer in the range 0
to 255. This option can be used to see if different types-of-service result in different paths. (If you are not running 4.4bsd,
this may be academic since the normal network services like telnet and ftp don't let you control the TOS). Not all values of TOS are
legal or meaningful - see the IP spec for definitions. Useful values are probably -t 16 (low delay) and -t 8 (high throughput).
-v Verbose output. Received ICMP packets other than TIME_EXCEEDED and UNREACHABLEs are listed.
Set the time (in seconds) to wait for a response to a probe (default 5 sec.).
-x Toggle ip checksums. Normally, this prevents traceroute from calculating ip checksums. In some cases, the operating system can over-
write parts of the outgoing packet but not recalculate the checksum (so in some cases the default is to not calculate checksums and
using -x causes them to be calculated). Note that checksums are usually required for the last hop when using ICMP ECHO probes (-I).
So they are always calculated when using ICMP.
Set the time (in milliseconds) to pause between probes (default 0). Some systems such as Solaris and routers such as Ciscos rate
limit icmp messages. A good value to use with this this is 500 (e.g. 1/2 second).
This program attempts to trace the route an IP packet would follow to some internet host by launching UDP probe packets with a small ttl
(time to live) then listening for an ICMP "time exceeded" reply from a gateway. We start our probes with a ttl of one and increase by one
until we get an ICMP "port unreachable" (which means we got to "host") or hit a max (which defaults to the amount of hops specified by the
net.inet.ip.ttl sysctl(8) and can be changed with the -m flag). Three probes (change with -q flag) are sent at each ttl setting and a line
is printed showing the ttl, address of the gateway and round trip time of each probe. If the probe answers come from different gateways, the
address of each responding system will be printed. If there is no response within a 5 sec. timeout interval (changed with the -w flag), a
"*" is printed for that probe.
We don't want the destination host to process the UDP probe packets so the destination port is set to an unlikely value (if some clod on the
destination is using that value, it can be changed with the -p flag).
A sample use and output might be:
% traceroute nis.nsf.net.
traceroute to nis.nsf.net (126.96.36.199), 64 hops max, 38 byte packet
1 helios.ee.lbl.gov (188.8.131.52) 19 ms 19 ms 0 ms
2 lilac-dmc.Berkeley.EDU (184.108.40.206) 39 ms 39 ms 19 ms
3 lilac-dmc.Berkeley.EDU (220.127.116.11) 39 ms 39 ms 19 ms
4 ccngw-ner-cc.Berkeley.EDU (18.104.22.168) 39 ms 40 ms 39 ms
5 ccn-nerif22.Berkeley.EDU (22.214.171.124) 39 ms 39 ms 39 ms
6 126.96.36.199 (188.8.131.52) 40 ms 59 ms 59 ms
7 184.108.40.206 (220.127.116.11) 59 ms 59 ms 59 ms
8 18.104.22.168 (22.214.171.124) 99 ms 99 ms 80 ms
9 126.96.36.199 (188.8.131.52) 139 ms 239 ms 319 ms
10 184.108.40.206 (220.127.116.11) 220 ms 199 ms 199 ms
11 nic.merit.edu (18.104.22.168) 239 ms 239 ms 239 ms
Note that lines 2 & 3 are the same. This is due to a buggy kernel on the 2nd hop system - lilac-dmc.Berkeley.EDU - that forwards packets
with a zero ttl (a bug in the distributed version of 4.3BSD). Note that you have to guess what path the packets are taking cross-country
since the NSFNet (129.140) doesn't supply address-to-name translations for its NSSes.
A more interesting example is:
% traceroute allspice.lcs.mit.edu.
traceroute to allspice.lcs.mit.edu (22.214.171.124), 64 hops max
1 helios.ee.lbl.gov (126.96.36.199) 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms
2 lilac-dmc.Berkeley.EDU (188.8.131.52) 19 ms 19 ms 19 ms
3 lilac-dmc.Berkeley.EDU (184.108.40.206) 39 ms 19 ms 19 ms
4 ccngw-ner-cc.Berkeley.EDU (220.127.116.11) 19 ms 39 ms 39 ms
5 ccn-nerif22.Berkeley.EDU (18.104.22.168) 20 ms 39 ms 39 ms
6 22.214.171.124 (126.96.36.199) 59 ms 119 ms 39 ms
7 188.8.131.52 (184.108.40.206) 59 ms 59 ms 39 ms
8 220.127.116.11 (18.104.22.168) 80 ms 79 ms 99 ms
9 22.214.171.124 (126.96.36.199) 139 ms 139 ms 159 ms
10 188.8.131.52 (184.108.40.206) 199 ms 180 ms 300 ms
11 220.127.116.11 (18.104.22.168) 300 ms 239 ms 239 ms
12 * * *
13 22.214.171.124 (126.96.36.199) 259 ms 499 ms 279 ms
14 * * *
15 * * *
16 * * *
17 * * *
18 ALLSPICE.LCS.MIT.EDU (188.8.131.52) 339 ms 279 ms 279 ms
Note that the gateways 12, 14, 15, 16 & 17 hops away either don't send ICMP "time exceeded" messages or send them with a ttl too small to
reach us. 14 - 17 are running the MIT C Gateway code that doesn't send "time exceeded"s. God only knows what's going on with 12.
The silent gateway 12 in the above may be the result of a bug in the 4.BSD network code (and its derivatives): 4.x (x <= 3) sends an
unreachable message using whatever ttl remains in the original datagram. Since, for gateways, the remaining ttl is zero, the ICMP "time
exceeded" is guaranteed to not make it back to us. The behavior of this bug is slightly more interesting when it appears on the destination
1 helios.ee.lbl.gov (184.108.40.206) 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms
2 lilac-dmc.Berkeley.EDU (220.127.116.11) 39 ms 19 ms 39 ms
3 lilac-dmc.Berkeley.EDU (18.104.22.168) 19 ms 39 ms 19 ms
4 ccngw-ner-cc.Berkeley.EDU (22.214.171.124) 39 ms 40 ms 19 ms
5 ccn-nerif35.Berkeley.EDU (126.96.36.199) 39 ms 39 ms 39 ms
6 csgw.Berkeley.EDU (188.8.131.52) 39 ms 59 ms 39 ms
7 * * *
8 * * *
9 * * *
10 * * *
11 * * *
12 * * *
13 rip.Berkeley.EDU (184.108.40.206) 59 ms ! 39 ms ! 39 ms !
Notice that there are 12 "gateways" (13 is the final destination) and exactly the last half of them are "missing". What's really happening
is that rip (a Sun-3 running Sun OS3.5) is using the ttl from our arriving datagram as the ttl in its ICMP reply. So, the reply will time
out on the return path (with no notice sent to anyone since ICMP's aren't sent for ICMP's) until we probe with a ttl that's at least twice
the path length. I.e., rip is really only 7 hops away. A reply that returns with a ttl of 1 is a clue this problem exists. Traceroute
prints a "!" after the time if the ttl is <= 1. Since vendors ship a lot of obsolete (DEC's Ultrix, Sun 3.x) or non-standard (HP-UX) soft-
ware, expect to see this problem frequently and/or take care picking the target host of your probes.
Other possible annotations after the time are:
!H Host unreachable.
!N Network unreachable.
!P Protocol unreachable.
!S Source route failed.
!F-<pmtu> Fragmentation needed. The RFC1191 Path MTU Discovery value is displayed.
!U Destination network unknown.
!W Destination host unknown.
!I Source host is isolated.
!A Communication with destination network administratively prohibited.
!Z Communication with destination host administratively prohibited.
!Q For this ToS the destination network is unreachable.
!T For this ToS the destination host is unreachable.
!X Communication administratively prohibited.
!V Host precedence violation.
!C Precedence cutoff in effect.
!<num> ICMP unreachable code <num>.
These are defined by RFC1812 (which supersedes RFC1716). If almost all the probes result in some kind of unreachable, traceroute will give
up and exit.
This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and management. It should be used primarily for manual fault isolation.
Because of the load it could impose on the network, it is unwise to use traceroute during normal operations or from automated scripts.
netstat(1), ping(8), ping6(8), traceroute6(8).
Implemented by Van Jacobson from a suggestion by Steve Deering. Debugged by a cast of thousands with particularly cogent suggestions or
fixes from C. Philip Wood, Tim Seaver and Ken Adelman.
When using protocols other than UDP, functionality is reduced. In particular, the last packet will often appear to be lost, because even
though it reaches the destination host, there's no way to know that because no ICMP message is sent back. In the TCP case, traceroute should
listen for a RST from the destination host (or an intermediate router that's filtering packets), but this is not implemented yet.
The AS number capability reports information that may sometimes be inaccurate due to discrepancies between the contents of the routing data-
base server and the current state of the Internet.
June 19, 2012 BSD