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rhosts(5) [freebsd man page]

HOSTS.EQUIV(5)						      BSD File Formats Manual						    HOSTS.EQUIV(5)

NAME
hosts.equiv, .rhosts -- trusted remote host and user name data base DESCRIPTION
The hosts.equiv and .rhosts files contain information regarding trusted hosts and users on the network. For each host a single line should be present with the following information: simple hostname [username] or the more verbose [+-][hostname|@netgroup] [[+-][username|@netgroup]] A ``@'' indicates a host by netgroup or user by netgroup. A single ``+'' matches all hosts or users. A host name with a leading ``-'' will reject all matching hosts and all their users. A user name with leading ``-'' will reject all matching users from matching hosts. Items are separated by any number of blanks and/or tab characters. A ``#'' indicates the beginning of a comment; characters up to the end of the line are not interpreted by routines which search the file. Host names are specified in the conventional Internet DNS dotted-domains ``.'' (dot) notation using the inet_addr(3) routine from the Inter- net address manipulation library, inet(3). Host names may contain any printable character other than a field delimiter, newline, or comment character. For security reasons, a user's .rhosts file will be ignored if it is not a regular file, or if it is not owned by the user, or if it is writable by anyone other than the user. FILES
/etc/hosts.equiv The hosts.equiv file resides in /etc. $HOME/.rhosts .rhosts file resides in $HOME. EXAMPLES
bar.com foo Trust user ``foo'' from host ``bar.com''. +@allclient Trust all hosts from netgroup ``allclient''. +@allclient -@dau Trust all hosts from netgroup ``allclient'' and their users except users from netgroup ``dau''. SEE ALSO
rcp(1), rlogin(1), rsh(1), gethostbyname(3), inet(3), innetgr(3), ruserok(3), netgroup(5), ifconfig(8), yp(8) BUGS
This manual page is incomplete. For more information read the source in src/lib/libc/net/rcmd.c or the SunOS manual page. BSD
December 25, 2013 BSD

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hosts.equiv(4)							   File Formats 						    hosts.equiv(4)

NAME
hosts.equiv, rhosts - trusted remote hosts and users DESCRIPTION
The /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts files provide the "remote authentication" database for rlogin(1), rsh(1), rcp(1), and rcmd(3SOCKET). The files specify remote hosts and users that are considered "trusted". Trusted users are allowed to access the local system without supplying a password. The library routine ruserok() (see rcmd(3SOCKET)) performs the authentication procedure for programs by using the /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts files. The /etc/hosts.equiv file applies to the entire system, while individual users can maintain their own .rhosts files in their home directories. These files bypass the standard password-based user authentication mechanism. To maintain system security, care must be taken in creating and maintaining these files. The remote authentication procedure determines whether a user from a remote host should be allowed to access the local system with the identity of a local user. This procedure first checks the /etc/hosts.equiv file and then checks the .rhosts file in the home directory of the local user who is requesting access. Entries in these files can be of two forms. Positive entries allow access, while negative entries deny access. The authentication succeeds when a matching positive entry is found. The procedure fails when the first matching nega- tive entry is found, or if no matching entries are found in either file. The order of entries is important. If the files contain both posi- tive and negative entries, the entry that appears first will prevail. The rsh(1) and rcp(1) programs fail if the remote authentication pro- cedure fails. The rlogin program falls back to the standard password-based login procedure if the remote authentication fails. Both files are formatted as a list of one-line entries. Each entry has the form: hostname [username] Hostnames must be the official name of the host, not one of its nicknames. Negative entries are differentiated from positive entries by a `-' character preceding either the hostname or username field. Positive Entries If the form: hostname is used, then users from the named host are trusted. That is, they may access the system with the same user name as they have on the remote system. This form may be used in both the /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts files. If the line is in the form: hostname username then the named user from the named host can access the system. This form may be used in individual .rhosts files to allow remote users to access the system as a different local user. If this form is used in the /etc/hosts.equiv file, the named remote user will be allowed to access the system as any local user. netgroup(4) can be used in either the hostname or username fields to match a number of hosts or users in one entry. The form: +@netgroup allows access from all hosts in the named netgroup. When used in the username field, netgroups allow a group of remote users to access the system as a particular local user. The form: hostname +@netgroup allows all of the users in the named netgroup from the named host to access the system as the local user. The form: +@netgroup1 +@netgroup2 allows the users in netgroup2 from the hosts in netgroup1 to access the system as the local user. The special character `+' can be used in place of either hostname or username to match any host or user. For example, the entry + will allow a user from any remote host to access the system with the same username. The entry + username will allow the named user from any remote host to access the system. The entry hostname + will allow any user from the named host to access the system as the local user. Negative Entries Negative entries are preceded by a `-' sign. The form: -hostname will disallow all access from the named host. The form: -@netgroup means that access is explicitly disallowed from all hosts in the named netgroup. The form: hostname -username disallows access by the named user only from the named host, while the form: + -@netgroup will disallow access by all of the users in the named netgroup from all hosts. Search Sequence To help maintain system security, the /etc/hosts.equiv file is not checked when access is being attempted for super-user. If the user attempting access is not the super-user, /etc/hosts.equiv is searched for lines of the form described above. Checks are made for lines in this file in the following order: 1. + 2. +@netgroup 3. -@netgroup 4. -hostname 5. hostname The user is granted access if a positive match occurrs. Negative entries apply only to /etc/hosts.equiv and may be overridden by subse- quent .rhosts entries. If no positive match occurred, the .rhosts file is then searched if the user attempting access maintains such a file. This file is searched whether or not the user attempting access is the super-user. As a security feature, the .rhosts file must be owned by the user who is attempting access. Checks are made for lines in .rhosts in the following order: 1. + 2. +@netgroup 3. -@netgroup 4. -hostname 5. hostname FILES
/etc/hosts.equiv system trusted hosts and users ~/.rhosts user's trusted hosts and users SEE ALSO
rcp(1), rlogin(1), rsh(1), rcmd(3SOCKET), hosts(4), netgroup(4), passwd(4) WARNINGS
Positive entries in /etc/hosts.equiv that include a username field (either an individual named user, a netgroup, or `+' sign) should be used with extreme caution. Because /etc/hosts.equiv applies system-wide, these entries allow one, or a group of, remote users to access the system as any local user. This can be a security hole. For example, because of the search sequence, an /etc/hosts.equiv file consisting of the entries + -hostxxx will not deny access to "hostxxx". SunOS 5.11 23 Jun 1997 hosts.equiv(4)

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