SYSLOG(3) BSD Library Functions Manual SYSLOG(3)
syslog, vsyslog, openlog, closelog, setlogmask -- control system log
Standard C Library (libc, -lc)
syslog(int priority, const char *message, ...);
vsyslog(int priority, const char *message, va_list args);
openlog(const char *ident, int logopt, int facility);
The syslog() function writes message to the system message logger. The message is then
written to the system console, log files, logged-in users, or forwarded to other machines as
appropriate. (See syslogd(8) .)
The message is identical to a printf(3) format string, except that '%m' is replaced by the
current error message. (As denoted by the global variable errno; see strerror(3) .) A
trailing newline is added if none is present.
The vsyslog() function is an alternate form in which the arguments have already been cap-
tured using the variable-length argument facilities of stdarg(3) .
The message is tagged with priority. Priorities are encoded as a facility and a level. The
facility describes the part of the system generating the message. The level is selected
from the following ordered (high to low) list:
LOG_EMERG A panic condition. This is normally broadcast to all users.
LOG_ALERT A condition that should be corrected immediately, such as a corrupted system
LOG_CRIT Critical conditions, e.g., hard device errors.
LOG_WARNING Warning messages.
LOG_NOTICE Conditions that are not error conditions, but should possibly be handled spe-
LOG_INFO Informational messages.
LOG_DEBUG Messages that contain information normally of use only when debugging a pro-
The openlog() function provides for more specialized processing of the messages sent by
syslog() and vsyslog(). The ident argument is a string that will be prepended to every mes-
sage. The logopt argument is a bit field specifying logging options, which is formed by
OR'ing one or more of the following values:
LOG_CONS If syslog() cannot pass the message to syslogd(8) it will attempt to write the
message to the console (``/dev/console'').
LOG_NDELAY Open the connection to syslogd(8) immediately. Normally the open is delayed
until the first message is logged. Useful for programs that need to manage
the order in which file descriptors are allocated.
LOG_PERROR Write the message to standard error output as well to the system log.
LOG_PID Log the process id with each message: useful for identifying instantiations of
The facility argument encodes a default facility to be assigned to all messages that do not
have an explicit facility encoded:
LOG_AUTH The authorization system: login(1) , su(1) , getty(8) , etc.
LOG_AUTHPRIV The same as LOG_AUTH, but logged to a file readable only by selected individu-
LOG_CONSOLE Messages written to /dev/console by the kernel console output driver.
LOG_CRON The cron daemon: cron(8) .
LOG_DAEMON System daemons, such as routed(8) , that are not provided for explicitly by
LOG_FTP The file transfer protocol daemons: ftpd(8) , tftpd(8) .
LOG_KERN Messages generated by the kernel. These cannot be generated by any user pro-
LOG_LPR The line printer spooling system: lpr(1) , lpc(8) , lpd(8) , etc.
LOG_MAIL The mail system.
LOG_NEWS The network news system.
LOG_NTP The network time protocol system.
LOG_SECURITY Security subsystems, such as ipfw(4) .
LOG_SYSLOG Messages generated internally by syslogd(8) .
LOG_USER Messages generated by random user processes. This is the default facility
identifier if none is specified.
LOG_UUCP The uucp system.
LOG_LOCAL0 Reserved for local use. Similarly for LOG_LOCAL1 through LOG_LOCAL7.
The closelog() function can be used to close the log file.
The setlogmask() function sets the log priority mask to maskpri and returns the previous
mask. Calls to syslog() with a priority not set in maskpri are rejected. The mask for an
individual priority pri is calculated by the macro LOG_MASK(pri); the mask for all priori-
ties up to and including toppri is given by the macro LOG_UPTO(toppri);. The default allows
all priorities to be logged.
The routines closelog(), openlog(), syslog() and vsyslog() return no value.
The routine setlogmask() always returns the previous log mask level.
syslog(LOG_ALERT, "who: internal error 23");
openlog("ftpd", LOG_PID | LOG_NDELAY, LOG_FTP);
syslog(LOG_INFO, "Connection from host %d", CallingHost);
syslog(LOG_INFO|LOG_LOCAL2, "foobar error: %m");
logger(1) , syslogd(8)
These functions appeared in 4.2BSD.
Never pass a string with user-supplied data as a format without using '%s'. An attacker can
put format specifiers in the string to mangle your stack, leading to a possible security
hole. This holds true even if the string was built using a function like snprintf(), as the
resulting string may still contain user-supplied conversion specifiers for later interpola-
tion by syslog().
Always use the proper secure idiom:
BSD December 30, 2004 BSD