named(1M) System Administration Commands named(1M)
named - Internet domain name server
named [-fgsv] [-c config-file] [-d debug-level] [-n #cpus] [-p port] [-t directory] [-u user] [-x cache-file]
The named utility is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the BIND 9 distribution from ISC. For more information on the DNS, see RFCs
1033, 1034, and 1035.
When invoked without arguments, named reads the default configuration file /etc/named.conf, reads any initial data, and listens for
The following options are supported:
-c config-file Use config-file as the configuration file instead of the default /etc/named.conf. To ensure that reloading the configura-
tion file continues to work after the server has changed its working directory due to to a possible directory option in the
configuration file, config-file should be an absolute pathname.
-d debug-level Set the daemon's debug level to debug-level. Debugging traces from named become more verbose as the debug level increases.
-f Run the server in the foreground (that is, do not daemonize).
-g Run the server in the foreground and force all logging to stderr.
-n #cpus Create #cpus worker threads to take advantage of multiple CPUs. If not specified, named will try to determine the number of
CPUs present and create one thread per CPU. If it is unable to determine the number of CPUs, a single worker thread will be
-p port Listen for queries on port port. If not specified, the default is port 53.
-s Write memory usage statistics to stdout on exit.
This option is mainly of interest to BIND 9 developers and might be removed or changed in a future release.
-t directory Change the root directory using chroot(2) to directory after processing the command line arguments, but before reading the
This option should be used in conjunction with the -u option, as chrooting a process running as root doesn't enhance secu-
rity on most systems; the way chroot() is defined allows a process with root privileges to escape a chroot jail.
-u user Set the real user ID using setuid(2) to user after completing privileged operations, such as creating sockets that listen
on privileged ports.
On Linux, named uses the kernel's capability mechanism to drop all root privileges except the ability to use bind(3SOCKET)
to bind to a privileged port and set process resource limits. Unfortunately, this means that the -u option works only when
named is run on kernel 2.2.18 or later, or kernel 2.3.99-pre3 or later, since previous kernels did not allow privileges to
be retained after setuid().
-v Report the version number and exit.
-x cache-file Load data from cache-file into the cache of the default view.
This option must not be used. It is of interest only to BIND 9 developers and might be removed or changed in a future
In routine operation, signals should not be used to control the nameserver; rndc(1M) should be used instead.
SIGHUP Force a reload of the server.
SIGINT, SIGTERM Shut down the server.
The result of sending any other signals to the server is undefined.
The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here. A complete description is provided in the BIND 9 Administrator Ref-
/etc/named.conf default configuration file
/var/run/named.pid default process-ID file
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
|Availability |SUNWbind9 |
|Interface Stability |External |
rndc(1M), chroot(2), setuid(2), bind(3SOCKET), attributes(5)
RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035
BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual
Source for BIND9 is available in the SUNWbind9S package.
SunOS 5.10 15 Dec 2004 named(1M)