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tail(1) [freebsd man page]

TAIL(1) 						    BSD General Commands Manual 						   TAIL(1)

NAME
tail -- display the last part of a file SYNOPSIS
tail [-F | -f | -r] [-q] [-b number | -c number | -n number] [file ...] DESCRIPTION
The tail utility displays the contents of file or, by default, its standard input, to the standard output. The display begins at a byte, line or 512-byte block location in the input. Numbers having a leading plus ('+') sign are relative to the beginning of the input, for example, ``-c +2'' starts the display at the second byte of the input. Numbers having a leading minus ('-') sign or no explicit sign are relative to the end of the input, for example, ``-n 2'' displays the last two lines of the input. The default start- ing location is ``-n 10'', or the last 10 lines of the input. The options are as follows: -b number The location is number 512-byte blocks. -c number The location is number bytes. -f The -f option causes tail to not stop when end of file is reached, but rather to wait for additional data to be appended to the input. The -f option is ignored if the standard input is a pipe, but not if it is a FIFO. -F The -F option implies the -f option, but tail will also check to see if the file being followed has been renamed or rotated. The file is closed and reopened when tail detects that the filename being read from has a new inode number. If the file being followed does not (yet) exist or if it is removed, tail will keep looking and will display the file from the begin- ning if and when it is created. The -F option is the same as the -f option if reading from standard input rather than a file. -n number The location is number lines. -q Suppresses printing of headers when multiple files are being examined. -r The -r option causes the input to be displayed in reverse order, by line. Additionally, this option changes the meaning of the -b, -c and -n options. When the -r option is specified, these options specify the number of bytes, lines or 512-byte blocks to display, instead of the bytes, lines or blocks from the beginning or end of the input from which to begin the display. The default for the -r option is to display all of the input. If more than a single file is specified, each file is preceded by a header consisting of the string ``==> XXX <=='' where XXX is the name of the file unless -q flag is specified. EXIT STATUS
The tail utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs. EXAMPLES
To display the last 500 lines of the file foo: $ tail -n 500 foo Keep /var/log/messages open, displaying to the standard output anything appended to the file: $ tail -f /var/log/messages SEE ALSO
cat(1), head(1), sed(1) STANDARDS
The tail utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (``POSIX.2'') specification. In particular, the -F, -b and -r options are extensions to that standard. The historic command line syntax of tail is supported by this implementation. The only difference between this implementation and historic versions of tail, once the command line syntax translation has been done, is that the -b, -c and -n options modify the -r option, i.e., ``-r -c 4'' displays the last 4 characters of the last line of the input, while the historic tail (using the historic syntax ``-4cr'') would ignore the -c option and display the last 4 lines of the input. HISTORY
A tail command appeared in PWB UNIX. BSD
March 16, 2013 BSD

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TAIL(1) 								FSF								   TAIL(1)

NAME
tail - output the last part of files SYNOPSIS
tail [OPTION]... [FILE]... DESCRIPTION
Print the last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output. With more than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input. Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too. --retry keep trying to open a file even if it is inaccessible when tail starts or if it becomes inaccessible later -- useful only with -f -c, --bytes=N output the last N bytes -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}] output appended data as the file grows; -f, --follow, and --follow=descriptor are equivalent -F same as --follow=name --retry -n, --lines=N output the last N lines, instead of the last 10 --max-unchanged-stats=N with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not changed size after N (default 5) iterations to see if it has been unlinked or renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log files) --pid=PID with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies -q, --quiet, --silent never output headers giving file names -s, --sleep-interval=S with -f, sleep for approximately S seconds (default 1.0) between iterations. -v, --verbose always output headers giving file names --help display this help and exit --version output version information and exit If the first character of N (the number of bytes or lines) is a `+', print beginning with the Nth item from the start of each file, other- wise, print the last N items in the file. N may have a multiplier suffix: b for 512, k for 1024, m for 1048576 (1 Meg). With --follow (-f), tail defaults to following the file descriptor, which means that even if a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will continue to track its end. This default behavior is not desirable when you really want to track the actual name of the file, not the file descrip- tor (e.g., log rotation). Use --follow=name in that case. That causes tail to track the named file by reopening it periodically to see if it has been removed and recreated by some other program. AUTHOR
Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Meyering. REPORTING BUGS
Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>. COPYRIGHT
Copyright (C) 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICU- LAR PURPOSE. SEE ALSO
The full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and tail programs are properly installed at your site, the command info tail should give you access to the complete manual. tail (coreutils) 4.5.3 February 2003 TAIL(1)

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